bio28.txt

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Author:
itzlinds
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149190
Filename:
bio28.txt
Updated:
2012-04-29 22:04:33
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female reproductive system
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female reproductive system
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  1. describe the structure and fxn of the ovaries:
    • primary sex organ
    • produces eggs + hormones (estrogen/progesterone)
    • each egg develops in its own follicle
  2. describe the structure and fxn of the fallopiean tubes:
    • lots of smooth muscle
    • contain cilia - beat toward the uterus
    • fimbriae - projections
    • infundibulum - "funnel", or trumpet shaped
    • ampulla - middle part
    • isthmus - narrow, near uterus
  3. describe the structure and fxn of the uterus:
    • aka: womb
    • thick musclar chamber
    • location for fetal development and nutrition

    • myometrium
    • middle muscluar layer
    • smooth muscle
    • produces labor contractions to expel infant

    • endometrium
    • stratum functionalis:outer 2/3rds - is shed each menstrual cycle
    • stratum basalis: inner 1/3rd - regenerates a new functionalis; site of embryo attachment; forms the placenta from which infant is nurished

    • cervix
    • opening of uterus to vagina
    • larger in pregancy
    • cervical caner = common; dectetion- papsmear
  4. describe the structure and fxn of the vagina:
    • 4" tube
    • allows for menstral fluid discharge, recepiant of the penis and semen, and birth pathway for infant
    • low pH prevents bacterial growth, neutrialized by semen
    • urethra is separate
  5. describe the development of the external genitial:
    • similarities between sexes
    • structures developes from same tissue
    • penis/clitoris - from genitial tubercle
    • scrotum/libia major - from laboscrotal fold
  6. describe the structures of the femal external genitalia:
    • include: mons pubis, labia majors and minors, clitoris, and accessory glands
    • vestibular glands: (~bulbourethra glands/male) keep vulva moist; provide lubrication for intercourse
    • paraurethral glands: (labium minus) provides lubrications
    • clitoris: sensory, circulation, innervation
  7. describe the structure and fxn of the breasts and mammary glands:
    • fxn: provide nutrition to infant
    • mammary glands: develop within the breast only during pregnancy, remains active in the lactating breast, atrophies when a women stops nursing
    • areola: blood capillaries and nerves closer to the surface, more sensitive for milk ejection, deep color makes it visible to infant
    • breast size: determined by amount of adipose tissue deposited - not milk production
  8. reveiw oogenesis including the stages of cell progression from oogonia into a mature ovum:
    • oogenesis: (meiosis) egg production
    • oogonia: germ cells, mitosis differentiation, in fetal life there are 6-7 million
    • primary ooctyes: meiosis I (1st division), begins in utero, complete prior to ovulation, 2million remain at the time of birth and remain until childhood
    • secondary oocytes: puberty/adolescences, completes meiosis I (2nd meiotic division), proceeds as far as metaphase II, then developmental arrest until ovulation, completed after fertilization
    • *if not fertilized, it dies and never completes meiosis, if it is fertilized, it completes miosis II and casts off a second polar body
    • ovum: after fertilzation, total used ~ 500, 1 germ cell = 1 egg
  9. trace the pathway and possible fates of the ovum after ovulation:
    • meiosis I: completed just before ovulation
    • secondary oocyte; all cytoplasm goes to one egg
    • first polar body: extra chromosomes discarded, dies
    • meiosis II: only fertilized egg goes thru meiosis II - zygote to embryo
  10. describe the various stages in folliculogenesis:
    • egg exists inside follicles, follicles develop in stages
    • FSH stimulates follicles to grow + differentiate
    • primordial follicles: primary oocyte, surrounded by a single layer of squamous epithelium (90-95% of follicles)
    • primary follicle: still form only a single layer, but have new grown into a simple cuboidal epithelium, stimulated by FSH
    • secondary follicle: two or more layers, granulosa cells - stratified epithelium, secrete a layer of glycoprotein gel called zona pellucida, around the oocyte, theca cells- connective tissue, just pior to ovulation, becomes free floating in follicle
    • tertiary follicles: antrum - fluid filled cavity, granulosa cells converts androgens to estrogens, thecal cells produces androgens
    • mature (graafain) follicles: only one/per month, ovulation occurs
    • corpus luteum: "yellow" body, produces progesterone
  11. explain the female sexual cycle including the source of each hormone, hormonal changes, phases, and major events in the ovarian cycle and the menstural cycles:
    • Days 1-5
    • menstural cycle: uterine phase
    • ovarian cycle: follicular phase
    • multiple follicles develop
    • one follicle becomes dormant
    • dormant follicle matures (+ proliferative phase

    • days 15-28
    • menstural cycle: secretatory phase
    • ovarian cycle: luteal phase
    • corpus lutem fxns
    • corpus lutem degenerates
  12. explain the source of each hormone, homonal changes, phase, and major events of the oviarian cycle:
    • follicular phase
    • ~ 14 days
    • FSH stimulates several follicles to grow
    • only 1 becomes dormant
    • remainder of follicles degenerate
    • one mature follicle secrete high amounts of estrogen
    • theca cells produces androgens, granulosa cells convert androgens to estrogen, granulsa cells secrete inhibin and influence oocytes
    • estrogen: acts on reproductive tract and other ograns, and is a neg. feedback for AP and Hypothalamus
    • inhibin: negative feedback on AP

    • ovulation
    • day 14
    • rupture of mature follicle
    • release egg
    • *see handout for hormonal control*

    • LH surge + ovulation
    • primary oocyte to secondary oocyte (completes meiosisI, ovulation occurs, 2-3 mins)
    • follicle to the corpus luteum
    • *see handout for hormonal control*


    • luteal phase
    • day 15- 28
    • always same # of days after ovulation (~14)
    • prepares uterus for pregnancy
    • corpus lutem degenerates, if no fertilization

    • hormonal control of luteal phase
    • ovary has corpus luteum - produces progesteron/estrogen
    • prepares uterus for pregnancy
    • also, produces inhibin, prevents 2nd ovulation, AP negative feedback on FSH/LH
  13. explain the source of each hormone, hormonal changes, phase, and major events of the menstural cycle:
    • uterine changes during cycle based on changing hormone levels
    • endometrium: shed, growth, secretion - progesterone/esterogen

    • proliferative phase
    • ~ day 5- 14
    • estrogen (growing follicle), stimulates endometrium growth
    • 0.5-2-3 mm thick

    • secretory phase
    • ~ day 15-26
    • endometrium: estrogen stimulates contiuned growth (5-6 mm thick)
    • progesterone (+ corpus luteum) - glycogen secretion/mucus, increased vascualarity, nutrient rich for embryo development

    • premenstural phase
    • corpus lutem atrophied
    • decreased progesterone
    • endometrium degenerates

    • menstural phase
    • day 1 - 5
    • menstural fluid discharge (~50-70 mL)
  14. list the fxn of estrogen:
    • at puberty
    • increased GnRH > increased FSH, LH> increased estrogen/progesterone

    • estrogen
    • follicular development
    • breast development (ducts)
    • growth of sex organs
    • 2ndary sex characteristics: body growth, fat deposition, thicker/softer skin, pubic/axillary hair
  15. list the fxn of progesterone:
    • prepares uterus for pregnancy
    • breast development (glands) during pregnancy
  16. explain the basis for hormonal birth control:
    the "pill" - combination progesterone + estrogen, negative feedback prevents LH surge (no ovulation)

    • options
    • patch (ortho evra)
    • vaginal ring (nuva ring)
    • injections (depo propera)
    • IUD - inserted into uterus, prevents implantation of fertilized egg
    • male sterilazation
  17. define climacteric and menopause and explain how they affect female anatomy and physiology:
    • climacteric
    • midlife changes in hormone secretion
    • begins when ~ 1000 follicles remain
    • follicles are less responsive to LH, FSH
    • reduced estrogen/progesterone

    • menopause
    • menstruation ceases
    • age 45-55 years
    • hot flashes (vasodilation)
    • reduced bone mass
    • mood changes
    • headaches
  18. describe the phases of the female sexual response:
    • increased HR, BP, ventilation
    • changes: uterus position, hyperemia (increased blood flow)
    • peristalic contractions - may help semen movement to uterus
    • orgasm (sphincters close)
    • no refractory period
  19. Which of the following is not a component of the vulva?

    hymen
    clitoris
    vaginal orifice
    mons pubis
    labia majora
    hymen
  20. Providing a source of nutrition to the fetus is a function of the:

    ovaries
    uterus
    fallopian tubes
    vaginal rugae
    vagina
    uterus
  21. The first haploid stage in oogenesis is the:

    primary oocyte
    zygote
    second polar body
    secondary oocyte
    oogonium
    primary oocyte
  22. In the developing follicle, _______ cells produce androgens like testosterone that get converted to estrogen by _______ cells.


    follicular; luteal
    theca; granulosa
    cumulus; pellucida
    teste; estro
    antral; graafian
    theca; granulosa
  23. Production of LH begins to increase during which of the following events of the ovarian cycle?

    follicular phase
    menstruation
    luteal phase
    secretory phase
    ovulation
    follicular phase
  24. Ovulation is directly triggered by _______ secreted by the ________.


    FSH, hypothalamus
    aldosterone, adrenal cortex
    LH, pituitary
    estrogen, fallopian tubes
    progesterone, ovaries
    LH, pituitary
  25. The uterus experiences peristaltic contractions during which of the following?
    orgasm
    menstruation
    resolution
    excitement
    plateau
    orgasm
  26. Which of the following is not a response to estrogen?

    growth of sex organs
    breast development
    prevents menstruation
    suppress FSH secretion
    prevents menstruation
  27. Which of the following methods of birth control is the least reliable?

    spermicide
    condom
    abstinence
    birth control pill
    vasectomy
    spermicide
  28. Which of the following is not a consequence of menopause?


    vagina becomes thinner
    ischemia
    hot flashes
    bone mass declines
    increased risk of cardiovascular disease
    ischemia

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