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1. Who came up with homeostatis?
2. Who discribed the consistency of the internal environment despite the changing external environment?
- 1. Walter cannon
- 2. Claude Bernard in 1800s
What are the two approaches in physiology?
- teleological approach: common sense approach
- mechanistic approach: specific cuase of an event, knowing the specific mechanism involved
physiology is the study of _____
- function and structure are inseparable
Most physiology came from ____century
What is the "point" called when provide for a constant or a constancy effect in our internal environment?
Homeostasis is constant, but ever changing-dynamic consistency
What phenomenon is this?
Glucose goes into cells, converted into sorbitol which crystallizes and then ruptures the cell
A____detected by____which is then relayed to the _______which then innervates the____which reverses the effect of the stimulus
- 1. stimulus
- 2. sensor
- 3. integrating center
- 4. effector
Identify the following:
Eat -> Blood glucose rises____ ->Islets of Langerhans _____ -> secretes Insulin -> Cellular uptake of glucose into the cell membrane -> Blood glucose lowers (____ has been reverted)
What kind of feedback?
Standing up -> Blood pressure falls____ ->Blood pressure receptors respond ____ -> Sensory nerve fibers ->Medulla oblongata of brain_____-> Motor nerve fibers ->Heart rate increases _____ -> Rise in blood pressure
- (integrating center)
Glucagon is the ______ of insulin: try to maintain blood glucose range
50%≥ of nervous system energy has to come from _____although it can come from some lipids, but that takes a period of several weeks
Calcium levels are important to regulate because they regulate_______
nerve action potential
Calcium level lowers -> _____hormone raises it _____breaks down bone to increase calcium levels Calcium level rises -> ______lowers it
What kind of tissues have microvilli, what what is the function of microvilli?
That would be epithelial tissues, and it is to aid in absorption by increasing surface area
Nerve -> Neurotransmitter -> Target Organ
Give two examples of postive feedbacks
Ex. 1: Oxytocin stimulates vaginal contractions in uterinesmooth muscle during childbirth (which in turn stimulates oxytocin levelsforming a loop) Ex.2: Blood clotting stimulates other clotting factors
avascular, compact cells with little interstitial space
if you cut epithelial tissues, would you lose blood?
Everything that goes from the external to internalenvironment goes through______
True/false: Epithelial and connective have ample interstitual space.
False. Only connective tissues do
What kind of tissue contain fibers? And what kind of functions do fibers serve?
Connective tissues; fibers add strength, resillience and elasticity
Give 5 examples of connective tissues
- 1. Bone
- 2. Blood
- 3. Adipose tissues
- 4. connective tissue proper
- 5. cartilage
What is the interstitial space of blood called?
T/F: Loose connective tissue is highly vascular.
Name the 3 types of muscle tissues
- 1. Smooth
- 2. Cardiac
- 3. Skeletal
What kind of tissues have glial cells? And what kind of function does glial cells serve?
Nervous tissues; glial cells are to specialized for support
1. Skeletal muscle and cardiac muscles are both striated
2. Cardiac muscles are multinucleated
3. Skeletal muscles are multinucleated
4. Smooth muscles have intercalated discs
5. Smooth muscles are multinucleated
- 1. True
- 2. False. Cardiac muscles are uninucleated
- 3. True. Skeletal muscles are multinucleated
- 4. No. Only cardiac muscles do
- 5. No. smooth muscles are uninucleated
Why are adipocytes vascular?
Adipocytes provide free fatty acids when broken down (highly vascular so that they can deliver the glucose to cells that need it)
True/False: Longitudinal muscle fiber arrangement allows for peristalsis and mixing
True. This is smooth muscles
T/F: In nervous tissues, cell body contains a nucleus with a very small nucleolus.