GCSE biology

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GCSE biology
2012-04-22 06:01:16
healthy bodies

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  1. the ..... which cause infectious diseases are known as ...... . once ...... and .... get inside your body they ....... rapidly . they ..... you tissues and may produce ..... which cause the ..... of the disease
    • microorganisms
    • pathogens
    • bacteria
    • viruses
    • reproduce
    • damage
    • toxins
    • symptoms
  2. your body has several methods of ..... itself agains the entry of ..... using the skin , the .... of the breathing system and the ..... of the blood . you WBC help to defend you against pathogens by ...... them , making ..... and making ......
    • defending
    • pathogens
    • mucus
    • clotting
    • ingesting
    • antibodies
    • antitoxins
  3. antibiotics do not kill .... because .... reproduce .... the cells . if bacteria change or ..... they become .... to ...... . a mutation in a ...... can also lead to a new form of disease which could lead to a ..........
    • viruses
    • viruses
    • inside
    • mutate
    • resistant
    • antibiotics
    • virus
    • pandemic
  4. people can be .... against a disease by intoducing small quantities of ..... or ..... forms of a ......... into your body . They stimulate the ...... to produce ..... to destroy the pathogen . this makes you .... to the diseases in the future
    • immunised
    • dead
    • inactive
    • pathogen
    • WBC
    • antibodies
    • immune
  5. how do antibiotics work
    • they destroy the bacteria cell wall
    • they stop DNA replication
    • they stop bacteria producing protiens
  6. why is penicillin safe
    because it kills the bacteria cells without harming your own body
  7. penicillin has been very succesful with the disease :
  8. What does MMR stand for
    mups , measles and rubella
  9. what are the disadvanatge of the MMR vaccine
    research suggests that the MMR vaccine was linked to the development of autism in some children
  10. what are the advantages of the MMR vaccine
    • you become immune to mups , measles and rubella
    • you only have to have 1 vaccine to become immune to 3 diseases
    • when the vaccine came out the population fo people with at least one of the above diseases dropped
  11. what are the pros of vaccination
    • you are less likely to catch the disease
    • if lots of poeple are vaccinated then the disease will not be likley to infect anybody , so even all the people who didnt have the vaccination are likley to be safe - herd immunisation
    • once everytbody has been vaccinated the disease will be wiped out it may stop people from getting permanet disabilities
  12. what are the cons of vaccinations
    • they can have bad side effects
    • not everybody has the vaccination as people focus on the side effects of the vaccination
    • if one person has the flu for example and is injected for the flu and if the needle isnt sterile the next person to have the flu vaccine may get the flu
    • some people have a needle phobia
    • to be succesful a vacine programme has to make sure the majority of the population have the vaccination
    • vaccination programmes cost a lot
  13. what type of chemical is released
  14. what type of chemical is released by some WBC to attack viruses
    antibodies to latch onto the antigens
  15. Hepititas B is more likely to be spread by among people who share needles when they inject drugs , explain why this is so
    if a person is affected by Hepititas B thier blood will be on the needle and if the needle then isn't steralised the next person to be injected have blood on the needle so the blood wil tarsnfer the virus
  16. define microorganisms
    • organisms that can only be viewed with a microscope
    • e.g. bacteria , viruses and fungi
  17. what are uncontaminated cultures of microorganims required for
    investigating the action of disinfectants and antibiotics
  18. unconatminated cultures of microorganims are required for investiagting the action of disinfectants and antibiotics . it is imprtant that the culture is :
    not contaminated with other microorganisms that may compete for nutrients or produce toxins
  19. unconatminated cultures of microorganims are required for investiagting the action of disinfectants and antibiotics careful prodcedures are required to :
    prevent potentially pathogenic microorganisms being released into the environment
  20. to study microorgansims they need to be ..... . they need to be provided with the conditions they need to ..... ..... . these conditions include ..... , ..... and ...
    • cultured
    • reproduce rapidly
    • warmth
    • moisture
    • nutrients
  21. bacteria dnfungi can be grown in special media called :
    agar this provides them with carbohydrates , protiens or amino acids , and water
  22. when agar is heated up it is :
    liquid it can be piured into a petri dish - this is a plastic or glass dish with a lid
  23. tha agar ..... whn left to cool
  24. petri dishese and culture media must be ..... before use to ...... unwanted ........
    • steralised
    • kill
    • microorganisms
  25. ....... ..... are used to transfer microorganisms to the ...... , these must be ...... by passing them through a flame . the lid of the perti dish should be secured with tape tp prevent -------------------------------------------- . in schools and college laboratories , cultures should be incubated at a maximum of 25° C because ---------------------------------------------- .
    • inoculating loops
    • media
    • steralised
    • microorganisms from the air contaminating the culture
    • this greatly reduces the likelyhood of growth of pathogens that may be harmful to humans
  26. explain why agar is suitable as a culture medium for growing bacteria
    • we can steralise it without affecting the bacteria
    • microbes cannot digest agar , so it is not used up as they grow
    • it provides bacteria with nutrients ang gives them mosit and warm conditions so they are able to reproduce
    • it melts at 98° C so it can be poured into plates
  27. what is meany by aseptic
    something that is clear of microorganisms
  28. give 3 ways in which microbiological equipment and media can be steralised
    • we can use and autocalvce that heat everything to high temperatures killinh microorganisms
    • ultraviolet
    • ionsing radiation
  29. explain why the wire loop needs to be steralised before picking up the microbes
    because the heat from the wire may kill the microbes