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mental activity, describes the acquisition, storage, transformation, and use of knowledge.
Synonym for cognition, it refers to the variety of mental activities such as: perception, memory, imagery, language, problem solving, reasoning, and decision making.
Also refers to a particular theoretical approach to psychology
a theoretical orientation that emphasizes people's mental processes and their knowledge.
- carefully trained observers would systematically analyze their own sensations and report them as objectively as possible.
- analyzing experiences into separate components.
- observations that our regall is sepecially accurate for the final itmes in a series of stimuli.
- Mary Whiton Calkins
Psychology focuses on the objective, observable reactions to stimuli in the environment.
Behaviorist emphasize it and it is a precise definition that specifies exactly how a concept is to be measured.
we humans have basic tendencies to actely organize what we see. We see patterns rather than random arrangements.
The oval with two straight lines equalled a face.
What type of problem solving does Gestalt emphasize?
- The Insight of Problem solving.
- You gain a sudden flash of insight then solve the problem.
When a baby learns that an object still exist even when it is out of sight.
What were the three approaches that encouraged the growth of cognitive psychology.
Information Processing Approach
similar to the operations of a computer and information progressing through the system of stages.
memory is understoon as a series of steps, where information is transformed form one storage area to the next.
The part of your brain that store memories of senses.
Visual Sensory that preserves an image of a visual stimu.us for a brief period after the stimulus has disappeared.
Parallel Distributed Processing
can be understood in terms of networks that link together neuron like units and the operations can proceed simultaneously.
The outer layer of the brain that is responsible for cognitive processes.
The system handles only on item at a given time; furthermore, the system must complete one step before it can proceed to the next step.
Begins with conscious ORGANIZED and INTERPRETATION
emphasizes how a person's concepts and mental processes influence object recognition.
Exp: knowing what a baby looks like; expereince = having seen a picture of a new born baby.
Feature Analysis is a form of what type of processing?
Bottom up Processing
Begins with automatic SENSORY DETECTION AND ENCODING
emphasizes the importance of the environment and the stimulus in object recognition (what our sensory receptors actually register)
Exp: see the shape of the branches
uses previouse knowledge to gather and interpret the stimuli registered by the senses by the sense.
Object recognition and pattern recognition
is when you identify a complex arrangement of sensory stimuli, and you perceice that this pattern is separate from its background
Two terms that refer to perceptual stimuli
distal stimulus and proximal stimulus
- the information registered on your sensory receptors.
- Exp: the image a cell phone will leave on your retina
- the actual object that is in the environment.
- Exp: a cell phone sitting on a desk
When we recognize an object, we manage to figure out the identity of the distal stimulus, even when the inforamtio available in the proximal stimulus is far from perfect.
Exp: you can recognize your cell phone even when it is in an unusual angle or partially hidden by your bookbag.
Where is the primary visual cortex located?
in the occipital lobe of the brain
we see edges even though they are not physically present in the stimulus
You can compare a stimulus with a set of templates, or specific patterns that you have stored in memory.
Feature Analysis Theory
propose a more flexigle approach, in which a visual stimulus is coposed of a small number of characteristics or components
are features of an object that need to be present in order for it to be considered that object
Feature analysis are consistant with both psychological and neuroscience research.
Recognition By Components Theory
is that a specific view of an oject can be represented as an arrangement of simple 3-D shapes called geons.
are basic shapes that can be formed and combined to create objects.
Perception can be thought of as constructing a mental prepresentation of the distal stimulus using the information from the proximal stimulus.
What did Biederman do?
He emphasized geons
failing to see a change in a visible object when our attention is directed somewhere else.
What is attention?
- A concentration of mental activity using several cognitive processes.
- Allows you to process SELECTIVE ASPECTS of your sensory world.
- Exp: Spot light
Narrow Passageway limits amount of information we can attend to
easy and familiar and often parallel
Viewer Center Approach
- we store a different views on three-dimentional objects rather than one view.
- We mentally rotate the object until we recognize it.
When the conditions of research are similar to nature.
trying to attend to two or more stimuli at one time
trying to attend to one stimuli and ignoring all others
Experiment: dichotic listening tasks; visual search task
Distinctiveness is key in selective attention
deals with font-color and word-name relationship and helps explain the automatic vs. controlled processes
the brief memory for material that you are currently processing.
Memory for expereinces and informaiton that have accumulated over a lifetime.
What are the different types of long-term memory?
What is Episodic long term memory
Memories of events
What is Procedural long term memory?
knowledge of how to do things.
What is Semantic long term memory?
general knowledge of things or events
Rehearsal is not essential to transfer information from Short term memory to long term memory.
Atkinson and Shiffrin
Believed that inorder for short term memories to transfered to long term memories it needs to be rehearsed.
Baddley and Hitch's Memory Model included what?
- A multipart system
- Central Executive
- Visuaospatial Sketchpad
- Phonological Loop
Baddley - Central Executive
- major role focusing attention, planning and coordinating behavior: suppresses irrelevent information.
- exp: the boss of working memory. Plans, Problem Solves, and Initiates decision process.
Baddley- Visuospatial Sketchpad
visual and spatial info
Baddley- Phonological Loop
- sounds and autdio information.
- Two Parts:
- Phonological store - Memory store lasting 1-2 sec.
- Subvocal rehearsal process - Repeat to self
Baddley- Episodic Buffer
Temporary storehouse to combine info form phonological loop, visuo-spatial sketchpad, longterm memory.
We can remember more short words than long words because of TIME associated with PRONUNCIATION
It is harder to remember letters that sound alike because of semantic similarity (proactive interference)
Brown/Peterson and Peterson found that active processing is improtant
What did Brown/Peterson and Peterson Technique Demonstrate?
Material held in memory for less than a minute is frequently forgotten.
3 letters, count backward by 3's, recall
What factors affect Working Memory Capacity?
- pronounciation - time we can recall number of times produced in 1.5 seconds... linked to verabal trace
a memory unit that consists of several components that are strongly associated with one another.
Short term memory holds about 7 chunk; it can be a single # or letter.
- Defined the limits on our capacity for processing information.
- Calls basic units in short term memory chunks
- He came up with #7 (+/- 2)
when previously learned information interferes with new learning.
What are the factors that affect capacity
- Semantic similarity
Serial Position Effect
- is a U-shaped relationship between a word position in a list and it's probability of recall.
- Primacy Effect and Recency Effect
better recall for items at beginning of list because of more rehearsal time (LTM)
better recall for items at end of list because less interference (WM)
previously learned material interferes with new learning
What is Language?
it is spoken, written, or signed words and the way we combine them as we think
What is a Phoneme?
- it is the smallest unit of distinctive sound.
- Exp: e, l, th
Around how many English Phonemes are there?
What is a Morpheme?
- it is the smallest unit that carries meaning.
- it can onot be divided into smaller meaningful units
- exp: un break able, giraffe
What is Phonology?
it is the study of the sound system of a given language and the analysis and classifiacation of its phonemes.
What is Orthography?
it is a method of representing the sounds of a language using a written system.
What is Morphology?
studies of the rules for forming admissible words.
How many phonemes doe the word CAT have?
3 phonemes and 1 morpheme
How many phonemes and morphemes does the word CATS have?
4 phonemes and 2 morphemes
What is Grammar?
a system of rules that enables us to communicat with others.
What is Semantics?
a set of rules we use to derive MEANING from morphemes, words, and sentences
What is Syntax?
rules we use to order words into sentences, grammatical rules that govern how we organize words into sentences.
exp: in english, we say a red car; in spanish the adjective comes after the noun
What are Pragmatics?
our knowledge of the social rules that underlie language use.
What is Surface Structure?
it is realted to Syntax, it has to do with the word order of a sentence.
What is Deep Structure?
it is related to Semantics, it has to do with the meaning
Which two sentences have the same Deep Structure?
That toy is mine. That is my toy. That is my car.
That is my toy and That toy is mine.
Which two sentences have the same Surface Structure?
That is my toy. That toy is mine. That is my car.
That is my car and That is my toy.
What is Ambiguous Sentence?
- when sentences have identical surface structure but different deep structure.
- exp: The shooting of the hunters was terrible. They are cooking apples.
What is Phrase Structure?
- it emphasizes that we construct a sentence by using a hierarchial structure that is based on grammatical BUILDING BLOCKS called CONSTITUENTS.
- exp: The little girl looked at the big building
- Noun Constituent: the little girl
- Verb Constituent: looked at the big building
What are the main things to know about Transformational Grammar?
- Proposes innate language skills
- Emphasizes grammar not meaning
- It is necessary to understand similarities and diffences between sentences and thier meaning
What are the main things to know about Cognitive-Functional Approach?
- Emphaiszes that the purpose of language is to communicate meaning to others
- we structure sentences differently to communicate slightly different meanings
What are the Language Theories
Transformaitonal Garmmar and Cognitive- Functional Approach
What are the factors that affect comprehension?
Negatives, Passives, Nested Structures, and Ambiguity
What is an example of Negatives that affect comprehension?
Few people strongly deny that the world is not flat.
What is an example of Passives that affect comprehension?
The book was dropped by Tom.
What is an example of Nested Structures that affect comprehension?
- The car that I drive to school everyday broke down yesterday.
- information that is given before the important information is given.
What is an example of Ambiguity that affects comprehension?
Visiting relatives can be a nuisance
What is Garden Path Sentences?
- is a grammatically correct sentence that starts in such a way that the readers' most likely interpretation will be incorrect.
- exp. The old man the boat. = The boat is manned by the old.
Where does language occur?
Broca's area and Wenicke's area
Explain Broca's area.
It is identified as an essentioal component of the motor mechanisms governing articulated speech
Explain Wernicke's area
thought to be essential for the understanding and formulating coherent speech
Where is the Wernicke's area located on the brain?
a large region of the parietal and temporal lobes of the left cerebral hemisphere.
Where is tht Broca's area located on the brain?
a small posterior part of the infereior frontal gyrus of the left cerebral hemisphere
Higher working memory capacity is associated with higher ability to determine meaning. i.e. understanding unfamiliar words based on context clues
readers can recognize a word directly from the printed letters
we must translate the ink marks on the page into a form of sound before we can locate info about a word's meaning
we can use either direct-accesss or indirect-access
What are the theories of word recognition
direct-access, indirect-access, and dual route
Whar are the methods used to teach reading?
Whole-word approach and Phonics approach
What is the Whole-Word Approach?
- Encourages identifying (whole) words by using context cues
- DIRECT ACCESS
What is the Phonics Approach?
- it encourages ientifying words by pronouncing individual letters
- best way
What is a Lexicon?
- a mental dictionary that contains a variety of information about words.
- organized by meanings (Semantic) not alphabetically and relation to other words
What is a Disjunctive Search?
- an effortless and automatic search because the features do not overlap
- (Single feature)
- looking for a red ball amongst green balls
What is a Conjunctive Search?
- it requires effort because some caracteristics overlap between the target and distracters
- exp: looking for a green ball amongst green squares and red and green balls.
What is Working Memory?
- it is brief memory for material you are currently processing.
- coordinating ongoing mental activities
- aka (STM)
Digit span falls under the category of working memory or short term memory?
Short term memory
Operation Span works under the category of working memory or short term memory?
What does Baddley and Hitch say the purpose of working memory has?
it holds and manipulates info as we perform cognitive tasks
What is Anterograd Amnesia?
Can't remember anything AFTER brain damage.
What is Retrograde Amnesia?
Can't remember anything BEFORE brain damage
Amnesics perform similar to control participant on implicit memory tasks but not on explicit memory tasks
What is Autobiographical memory?
includes imagery about events, emotional reations, procedural information, and verbal narrative about yourself
Our memory is often accurate but peripheral and irrelevent details are often lost and recalling memories often blends together the information
We have good memory for public events.
What is Flashbuld Memory?
- memory for the circumstances in which you first learned about a very suprising and emotional event.
- Exp: 9/11
Why would you rember Flashbulb Memories more?
the have greater rehearsal, more elaboration, more distinct
Do we only recall actual memories of events as we encoded them or do we reconstruct memories at recall to make sense?
we also construct memories at retrieval.
What is a Schema?
- it is generalized knowledge of an event.
- an organized mental structure or framwork of preonceived ideas about the world and how it works.
Schemas can shape our memories of past events, until it becomes more consistent with our current viewpoints.
What is Consistency Bias?
tendency to exaggerate consistency between past and current feeling and beliefs.
What is Source Monitoring?
trying to identifyy the origins of your memories and beliefs.
What is Source Monitoring Error?
Mixing up the source of the memory.
What is the Misinformation Effect?
- incorporating information learned after an event into memory for that event.
- Exp: How fast was the car going when they smashed into eachother. vs. How fast was the car going when they hit each other.
What is the Constructivist Approach?
it argues that we construct knowledge by integrating what we know, so that our understanding of an event of a topic is coherent and makes sense.
What occurences can cause more errors in Eyewitness Testimony?
What factors can affect the Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimony?
- Plausible misinformation
- Social pressure to report an answer
- Witness receives positive feedback from say a lineup
What is the False Memory Perspective?
Many "recovered" memories are actually constructed stories about things that never happened.
What is Betrayal Trauma?
Actively inhibiting memories of abuse in order to maintain an attachment to the adult
What is Intrusion Error?
Strong association between probes and falsely remembered items.
What did Craik and Lockhart propose?
a level of processing model.
The best encoding is Self-reference Effect.
What is Encoding Specificity?
it talks about how recall is better if the retrieval context is similar to the encoding context
What is Semantic Memory?
Organized knowledge about the world. It includes facts, lexical knowledge and conceptual knowledge.
Semantic Memory includes categories and concepts
What is Feature Comparison?
- when concepts are stored in memory according to a list of necessay features.
- Defining Features and Characteristic Features
What is the Typicality Effect?
- when someone can define something based on it being typical for that category.
- Exp. Robin vs penguin for birds
What is the Total-Time Hypothesis?
the amount of time you learn depends on the total time you devodt to learning.
What is the distributed-Practice Effect?
You will remember more material if you spread your learning trials over time.
What are Mnemonics?
the use of a strategy to help memory
What are two types of Mnemonics?
Imagery and organization
What is the Method of Loci?
Mentally "revisiting" the place or Loci which will cut the items
What is Prospective Memory?
Remembering what you need to do in the future
What is metacognition?
Your knowledge and control of your cognitive processes.
What is Metamemory?
Tip-of the toungue phenomenon
What does Metacognition encompass?
Metamemory, Metacoprehension, and Self-regulaiton.
What is Metamemory>
the knowledge and control of your cognitive processes.
What is Foresight bias?
People overestimate the number of answers they will supply on a test.
What is an Algorithm?
a rule that guarantees solving a problem.
What is a Heuristic?
a simple strategy of shortcut that allows us to solve problems efficiently.
What is a Mental Set?
the tendency to think of a problem in a typical or customary way when a better solution is available.
Taking a break from the problem then coming back.
What is Inductive Reasoning?
making a generalized conclusion
What is Deductive Reasoning?
drawing conclusions that are definitely valid
Example of Deductive Reasoning.
- If a student at my college is enrolled in a course in cognitive psychology
- Then the student must have completed research methods
- Chris has not completed a course in reasearch methods
- Therefore, Chris is not taking a course in cognitive psychology
What are the two types of Deductive Reasoning?
Syllogism and Performance on conditional reasoning tasks
What is Syllogism?
it has two true statements and a conclusion
What is Propositional Calculus?
System for categorizing the kinds of reasoning used in analyzing propositions.
What is porposition?
What is antecedent?
it includes "if"
What is consequent?
it includes "then"
What is Fallacy?
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