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Why did Henry VII make sure his coronation (Oct 1485) came before his marriage with Elizabeth of York?
Because he wanted to show that he had claimed his throne in his own right and not through the marriage with Elizabeth.
Why did Henry predate his reign to 21 August?
- This meant that he could treat his opponents as traitors and attain them appropriately.
- Convenient because it meant their estates became the property of the crown by act of attainder.
When was Henry's first parliament?
How did he deal with Edward, Earl of Warwick (nephew of EdIV)?
- Sent him to the Tower as soon as he came to the throne.
- 1499 - executed him alongside Warbeck.
At the beginning of Henry's reign (in 1485-6) there were minor uprisings. Describe one started by Lord Lovel.
- 1486, while Henry was on royal progress to his northern areas.
- Lord Lovel (one of RIII's most loyal supporters) and the Stafford brothers (also loyal to RIII) rebelled against the king.
- Was put down relatively easily - some were executed, some were pardoned.
What event was the pinnacle of threat posed to Henry VII's rule by the Lambert Simnel plot?
June 1487 - Battle of Stoke
Why did the Battle of Stoke represent a serious threat to Henry VII's throne?
- Was a relatively close battle (4000 rebel deaths/3000 royal troops death) - very reminiscent of the Battle of Bosworth (Henry's forces were smaller but managed to win at Bosworth).
- Henry's was slightly bigger army with 12,000 (like Richard at Bosworth) but rebels had a core of well-trained German soldiers, under capable experience commander Martin Schwarz.
- The rebels managed to force the king to fight in order to put them down, and managed to march through the country without opposition (eg. Northumberland)
- John de la Pole Earl of Lincoln leading the rebellion had a stronger claim to the throne than Henry. (Also Edward, Earl of Warwick had too).
Outline the key figures who represented the home support for the Lambert Simnel plot.
- Earl of Lincoln - stronger/clearer claim to throne than Henry. (nephew of RIII, was made heir presumptive after Edward of Middleham died) 1487 - fled from court and turned up at MofB's court. (Henry was betrayed by Lincoln, for he had pardoned him and even invited him to his council. - this badly shook Henry's sense of security).
- Francis, Lord Lovell - was Lord Chamberlain under Richard, and was a military man.
- Thomas Broughton - One of RIII's most loyal in the north-west. Refused HVII's pardon and his continued opposition to new regime was a constant source of irritation and trouble.
How many soldiers fought for Henry, and how many for Lincoln's forces? How many deaths per side too?
- HVII - 12,000 men
- Lincoln - 8,000 men
- Royal troops deaths - 3,000
- Rebel deaths - 4,000
Outline some of the preemptive actions Henry to diminish home support for the Simnel plot.
- Feb 1487 - few lesser nobles were declared as traitors. Elizabeth Woodville and her son Marquis of Dorset put under house arrest and deprived of their lands.
- perhaps a preemptive actions to instill fear in those who were opposed to him.
- Henry offered perdon to long-standing rebels such as Thomas Broughton (though he did not accept this)
Who discovered Simnel and took him to Ireland? Who was Simnel? Who did Simnel impersonate?
- By Richard Symonds (priest in Oxfordshire)
- Simnel was a ten-year old boy, son of a baker.
- Impersonated Edward, Earl of Warwick (EdIV's nephew)
What was Lambert Simnel's role in the rebellion? Did Henry recognise this?
- He was merely used as a focus for Yorkist claim to the throne. A mere pawn in the hands of ambitious men. He was a ten-year old son of a baker and did had little choice about participating in the rebellion.
- Henry seemed to recognise this fact, and thus employed him as a turnspit in the royal kitchen and later rewarded his service by making him the royal falconer. This shows how Henry was able to know when needed to be merciful. (able character)
How did Margaret of Burgundy support the Simnel rebellion? And Why, also why was she a threat?
- Provided the rebels with 2,000 well-trained German mercenaries, with an equally experienced commander Martin Schwarz.
- Supported because she was the sister of EdIV and RIII, and was determined to see HVII overthrown and her family returned to power.
- She was a considerable threat to HVII as she operated outside England (in Low Countries) with considerable political skill and a lot of money.
Outline the Irish support that the Simnel plot received. Why did that person turn against Henry?
- The "king of Ireland" at the time was Earl of Kildare and he had built strong power base across Ireland.
- Helped rebels out by providing few thousand Irish troops under Thomas Geraldine (their daredevil tactics were a threat).
- He was upset by Henry VII because he did not officially confirm his position as deputy-lieutenant of Ireland.
- The rebels took base in Ireland, which was a centre of Yorkist support ever since Duke of York because Lord Lieutenant there in 1450. (Ireland relatively independent from English monarchy)
Name a noble in the north who did not attempt to stop the invasion of the rebels in 1487.
Earl of Northumberland
How did Henry's position/situation on the throne at this time allow the rebels to invade? (+other reasons)
- Usurpation still fresh - generally not secure on the throne.
- Did not have the loyalty of a lot of the nobles, especially local nobles in the north. Shown by the fact that none of the northern nobles made any attempt to stop the invasion of 1487 (eg. Northumberland)
- Many Yorkist supporters
- Foreign support
Which nobles fought for Henry at the Battle of Stoke?
- Earl of Oxford
- Son of Lord Stanely.
Who died at the Battle of Stoke?
Lincoln, Schwarz, Broughton and Thoman Geraldine all died in battle (Lovell fled but was also killed).
What did Henry do in the aftermath of the battle?
- Simnel was made a turnspit in the royal kitchen - later royal falconer.
- Symonds captured and sentenced to life imprisonment (though put in a bishop prison out of respect for his clerical position).
- As a deterrent to others in the future, those nobles who had fought at Stoke were dealt with swiftly in Henry's second parliament (Nov-Dec 1487). 28 nobles who fought at Stoke were attainted and their lands confiscated.
Perkin Warbeck Rebellion (1491-1499)
click to continue
List all the occasions in which Henry VII was forced to act because of the threat posed by Warbeck.
- Warbeck welcomed by Charles VIII of France (1492) - Henry invaded France and secured promise not to harbour rebels in Treaty of Etaples.
- Warbeck welcomed at court of Margaret of Burgundy (1492) - Trade ban on Burgundy 1493 (even though Burgundy was a large cloth market)
- Sir William Stanley's treason - Execute Stanley in Feb 1495 and forced to rearrange the household.
- Warbeck welcomed by James IV of Scotland and invaded England (1495 - 6) - Henry sign Truce of Ayton with James.
When James IV welcomed Warbeck to Scotland, how did he show that he had a lot of faith in Warbeck?
By offering Warbeck to marry James's cousin, Lady Catherine Gordon.
Who did Perkin Warbeck claim to be?
- Richard Duke of York, EdIV's younger son.
- (No one was sure what had happened to the princes in the Tower.)
Outline the foreign support Warbeck had.
- Warbeck managed to gather the support from virtually every country near England at some point in his rebellion.Margaret of Burgundy (aunt to the supposed young duke) - 1493 - Margaret tutored him in the ways of the Yorkist court.
- Charles VIII of France - welcomed Warbeck in 1492, was unhappy with how Henry was treating France after they had helped him to the throne (eg. helping out Brittany)
- James IV - late 1495 welcomed Warbeck (married him to his cousin), 1496 support attempted invasion of England by Warbeck, Truce of Ayton 1497.
- (Also welcomed by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian 1493.)
What did Henry do when Kildare recognised Perkin Warbeck's claim to the throne?
- Deprived him of his position as Lord Deputy and his brother of the Great Seal. Only after they sought the king's pardon in person did Henry restore them these titles.
- Thus Warbeck couldn't gain support from the Irish.
Give 2 examples of how Henry sacrificed some of his foreign policy/finance interests in order to secure promises not to support Warbeck from foreign countries.
- 1493 - Enforced trade ban on Burgundy. They were England's main cloth market, so was risky and sacrificed finance/income in order to remove threat from pretenders.
- Treaty of Etaples - Henry agreed to let Brittany be taken by France. Henry prepared to sacrifice Brittany over Warbeck.
Outline why Warbeck was a threat to Henry.
- A lot of foreign support (though perhaps not the same dedicated support in Simnel plot)
- It dictated Henry's foreign policy, his priorities lay in dealing with Warbeck threat, and this shows how Henry must have perceived Warbeck to be a great threat. (eg. Etaples, 1493 trade ban)
- Long-lasting threat (9 years) - a constant threat and source of irritation. (though it can be argued that it did not have any significant threat at any one point - ie no war like battle of Stoke)
- Warbeck sparked off the Cornish rebellion (1497) - although this was not necessarily a threat to Henry's throne, it showed how Warbeck posed problems along the breadth of country.
- Warbeck threatened marriage alliance of England and Spain.
- Some nobles supported the cause.
How did Henry's actions and position on the throne lessen the threat Warbeck posed?
- Henry's actions outmaneuvered Warbeck, removing potential support for Warbeck. (many countries showed some support for Warbeck, and this shows how important Henry's fast actions were in reducing the this threat).
- Henry was more secure on the throne - less nobles were prepared to support pretender - wanted stability.
- More loyal subjects - eg. Warbeck could not rally support within England, and when he was invading from Scotland, and was put down by Henry's supporters such as Lord Latimer (1496). (also Ireland do not support Warbeck now)
- Had 2 sons by then (1486 - Arthur, 1491 - Henry +1499 - Edmund) - more secure.
When did Henry's spies uncover some English conspirators amongst the government? Who? And when was he executed?
- Sir William Stanley had confessed that he would not take up arms against Warbeck if he were the real Richard.
- Henry executed him in February 1495 (even though he was his kingmaker) - ruthless but done so to instill fear in other conspiring English noblemen.
When were the rebellions in Yorkshire and Cornwall? What were both rebellions in reaction to?
- Yorkshire - 1489
- Cornwall - 1497.
- Both stemmed from reactions against the king's demands for money.
Give the events that lead to each rebellion (Yorkshire and Cornish)
- Yorkshire - against Henry's heavy tax demands to help defend Brittany from France (esp against new methods H used - a kind of income tax). meant to be 100,000 pounds but only received 27,000. Earl of Northumberland killed in rebellion.
- Cornwall - against the tax to finance to resist the expected invasion by James IV and Warbeck.
How did Henry upset Edmund de la Pole, Earl of Suffolk? Why was this bad?
- He refused to elevate him to the dukedom that his father had enjoyed. Also charged him 5,000 pounds for assuming his inheritance.
- This led to him fleeing with his brother Richard, to the court of Maximilian in 1501. (later seized by Philip of Burgundy. For the next 5 years, Edmund and Richard posed a serious threat to Henry.)
- This was not good, for Edmund had a stronger claim to the throne than Henry.
How can we account for Henry's more ruthless action in the 1500's.
- Edmund and Richard de la Pole had fled to Burgundy, and what remained of the old Yorkist support gathered in Flanders.
- Tudor deaths: 1500 - Edmund (3rd son) died, 1502 - Arthur died, 1503 - Elizabeth died.
- King's only male heir was 10-year old Henry who was weak at the time.
Give an example of this ruthless action.
- Jan 1504 Parliament - 51 men were attainted, many of whom were connected to Edmund Earl of Suffolk. (Largest number attainted by any parliament during his reign).
- Including Sir James Tyrell, Constable of the Tower at the time of the Princes' murder and connected with Suffolk.
- Suffolk's relations who remained in England were imprisoned and attainted.
- (Also stricter financial policy etc)
What did he do to try and persuade Philip of Burgundy to hand over Edmund?
- By (similarly to 1493) cutting off trade with Burgundy in 1503.
- This showed how Henry was more concerned about pretenders threatening his throne than trade or popularity of the merchants.
What event in 1506 was fortunate for Henry in terms of neutralising Edmund de la Pole?
- A storm caused Philip of Burgundy and his wife to take refuge off Weymouth.
- Henry managed to persuade Philip to hand over Edmund de la Pole.
- He was put in the Tower of London and was eventually executed by Henry VIII in 1513.
- At last, 1506 marked the end of Yorkist threats to the Tudor monarchy, for the most part.
Who still remained at large in Europe after Edmund was captured in 1506? What was he trying to do? Why was he not a particularly large threat?
- Richard de la Pole (his brother).
- He was trying in vain to muster support for his claim to the English throne.
- However, not a significant threat because few Yorkists now remained and Henry was proving a strong and just monarch to those who were loyal.