parasitology

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katie_moni
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parasitology
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2012-05-21 11:10:57
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Parasitology
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  1. __ generally a smaller organism that lives on or inside and at the expense of a larger animal
    parasite
  2. Host expense is dependent on: (3)
    1. number of parasites 2. kind and degree of injurt that they inflict 3. vigor or nourisment of the host
  3. __ a biological association in which one animal is transported by another animal
    phoresis
  4. __ two organisms which live together, neither bearing a parasitic relation to the other, but one or both members, deriving benefit
    communalism
  5. __ two organisms living together with a mutual advantageous association of two or more organisms
    Mutualism
  6. __ infestation with parasites
    parasitism
  7. __ a condition in which parasites of different species parasitize a single host
    multiple parasitism
  8. __ excessive parasitization by the same species
    superparasitism
  9. roundworms
    ascarisis
  10. hookworm
    ancylostomiasis
  11. whipworms
    trichuriasis
  12. hookworm infection under the skin
    cutaneous larval migrans
  13. cutaneous larval migrans in humans
    creeping eruption
  14. ascarids in humans
    visceral larval migrans
  15. passage of parasite via milk
    transmammary
  16. passage or parasites via placenta
    in Utero
  17. what are some synonyms for inUtero: (2)
    intrauterine, transovarian
  18. stage in development of egg post cell
    morula
  19. stage after morula
    vermiform embryo
  20. reduction in RBC # and/or hemoglobin
    anemia
  21. requires intermediate host (vector) generally an arthropod
    indirect life cycle
  22. no intermediate host needed. example-- transmission via urine, vomit etc.
    direct life cycle
  23. the brand or trade name
    proprietary name
  24. the generic name for a drug
    non-proprietary name
  25. the organic formula for the drug with carbon, hydroxide, oxygen, and covalent bonds attached
    chemical name
  26. What does ascarids (Rounds) look like in feces?
    spaghetti
  27. What does cestodes (tapes) look like in feces?
    grains of rice
  28. what does CAPC stand for?
    Companion Animal Parasite Council
  29. What family does Ancylostoma belong to?
    Ancylostomatidea
  30. What is the life cycle of the nematode?
    egg single cell--egg morula--egg tadpole--L1 first stage larva-- (hatch grow molt)--L2--L3 (infective stage)-- L4-- L5 young adult-- Adult--egg single cell
  31. What is the infective stage for ascarids?
    stage 2
  32. What are the 3 type of ancylostomiasis?
    1. Ancylostoma caninum 2. ancylostoma brazilienses 3. uncinaria stenocephalia
  33. How does ancylostoma infection occur? (5)
    1. skin penetration-infective stage 2. oral infection- prepatent period 14 days 3. transmammary- A. caninum only to date 4. intrauterine- A. caninum only to date 5. mammalian intermediate host
  34. What is the lifecycle of the hookworm?
    eggs are passed in feces--L1Matures with warmth--L2--L3 (infective stage)--L3 is swallowed or penetrates skin--L3 migrates through body tissues to lungs--larva is coughed up--larva is swallowed by host--larva matures to adult stage and attaches to intestine adults opens a capillary bed--male and female mate and produce eggs-- eggs are passed in feces
  35. What does ancylostomiasis inhabit?
    small intestins only-causing dark tarry feces
  36. What are some clinical signs of ancylostomiasis?
    1. far more devastating in puppy 2. dark tarry stool diarrhea 3. pale mucus membranes with anemia 4. microcytic/hypochromic 5. playing today, motionless tomorrow, dead 3rd day. 6. adults NOT seen in feces too small, only eggs
  37. _ is known as a blood sucker, it feeds on the mucosa of the small intestines (glucose) resulting in bleeding of the mucosal lining. NOT a blood sucker
    Ancylostoma caninum
  38. Life cycle of Ancylostoma caninum
    Dog consumes the 3rd stage larvae or the 3rd stage larvae penetrates the skin of animal--larvae mature in the sm. intestines and feed--mature worms copulate and start to produce egg--two weeks after consumption of 3rd stage--four weeks after skin penetration of 3rd stage-- eggs are passed in feces and hatch in 2-8days
  39. Once the 3rd stage larvae of Ancylostoma caninum is consumed and passes to the sm. intestines, one of two avenues may be taken:
    1. larvae may mature to adult 2. larvae may penetrate the intestine wall and migrate through the tissues and encyst within the skeletal muscles or gut wall becoming dormant
  40. The dormant larvae of Ancylostoma may becoming activated by what?
    Hormones of pregnancy or other stimuli where they can migrate to the small intestine or go to infest fetuses inutero
  41. __ and __ can both penetrate the skin resulting in cutaneous larval migrans
    ancylostoma caninum and ancylostoma brazilliense
  42. What is the diagnosis of hooks?
    eggs in the feces as larvae are hard to see
  43. What is the prepatent period for hooks?
    2 weeks
  44. Nemex
    pyrantel pamoate
  45. Drontal
    pyrantel pamoate/praziquantel
  46. Panacur
    fenbendazole
  47. Task
    diclorvos
  48. Interceptor/Sentinel
    milbemycin oxime & lufenuron
  49. Revolution
    selamectin
  50. Heartgard plus
    ivermectin/pyrantel pamoate
  51. Filarbits Plus
    oxibendazole/diethylcarbamazine
  52. What are some ways of controling of hooks?
    1. feces removal 2. sould can be periodically treated with salt 160g/liter boiling water 3. concret runs cleaned well 4. female should be de-wormed prior to breeding
  53. Roundworms
    ascariasis
  54. What are 3 kinds of roundworms?
    1. Toxocara canis 2. toxocara cati/mystax 3. toxascaris leonina
  55. What are the 5 stages of nematodes?
    1. Adult in intestines 2. eggs in feces on ground 3. feces contain L2 (infective stage) larva hatch in duodenum 4. larva migrate through various tissues 5. larvae migrate through the lungs and coughed up and swallowed
  56. As will all parasites, the females are usually larger in size, as with ascarids where the male is __cm and the female is __ cm
    male- 7-9cm female 10-17cm
  57. How can Ascarids be transmitted?
    comsumption of eggs, second stage larvae consumption, transplacentally, transmammary, and predation of paratenic host
  58. from ___ (place and date)-- the risk of direct transmission to Toxocara canis to man through contact only with dogs has now been confirmed by a scientific study.
    Monheim, May 5, 2003
  59. Does Ascarid eggs have to incubate in the soil?
    until now it was assumed the edd and 1st stage larve must spend 2-7 weeks in soil to develop. So the answer is NO
  60. Largest to smallest order of Ascarids
    1. Toxocara canis 2. Toxascaris leonina 3. Toxocara cati
  61. What is the ascarid of raccoons?
    Baylisascaris procynois
  62. Toxocara canis and cati follow what is called a__
    Tracheal Migration Route
  63. Describe Tracheal Migration Route/Transtracheal Migration:
    1. Dog consumes second stage larva 2. Larva penetrates the stomach and enters the hepatic portal circulation (Inside liver) 3. Larva migrates through the liver parenchyma(tissue of organ) 4. Larva enters the posterior vena cava and goes to lungs(through the heart, rt. atrium, rt. ventricle, pulm artery) 5. larva migrates up trachea to the pharynx where they are swallowed 6. following a molt in the stomach to stage 3, the parasite goes to the sm intestines to molt TWICE
  64. __ what are white areas in the liver called? This is caused by the trachmigration route killing the liver cells
    "milk spots"
  65. __ is the largest ascarid in dogs living in the small intestines and are long white and often straight in contrast to the worms of Physaloptera rara which lives in the stomach and is continuous C shaped through out its life
    Toxocara canis
  66. What is the prepatent period for ascarids?
    21 days- 3 weeks
  67. What is the life cycle for Ascarids?
    1. Dog or cat ingest the eggs, 2nd stage or paratenic 2. Egg will hatch in stomach and molt to 2nd stage 3. 2nd stage larvae invade the bowel, move to the liver and go to lungs via vena cava 4. Larvae enter alveoli, coughed up into trachea & mouth, are awallowed and mature in the sm intestine 5. When female is pregnant (hormones), larvae are activated to migrate to placenta and into lungs of pups or mammary glands where they are shed in milk.
  68. Larvae of both Ascarids and Ancylostoma that do not follow the normal routes of migration and as a result they encyst in the muscles in a __ state
    Dormant
  69. __ is a term for a state of arrested development.
    Hypobiosis
  70. There are really three forms of both the ascarid and ancylostoma in animals body, not in the egg form. what are they?
    1. adult- in intestines mostly 2. visceral migrating larvae 3. the encysted larval form
  71. What are some signs of ascarid infections in prenatal infected pups?
    a. abdominal cramps b. intersussusception with constipation(difficult)/obstipation(blockage)/dischezia(painful evacuation)
  72. What are some signs of ascarid infections in adults infected?
    a. gastrointestinal upset (diarrhea and vomiting) b. respiratory disorders due to tracheal migration(coughing) c. "pot belled" appearance and emaciation d. dull hair coat
  73. What is in "Happy Jack"
    piperazine, kills all round
  74. When foreign larvae enter the __ host strange migratory routes are assumed by the larvae.
    non-definitive
  75. __ seen in Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati (this implies migration in the liver primarily)
    Visceral Larval migrans
  76. What are 2 zoontic problems with parasites?
    1. Visceral Larval Migrans 2. Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  77. If visceral lraval migrans is ocular it is called__
    Ocular Larva Migrans (OLM)
  78. __ million people in the US have been infected with the larvae of T. canis and T. cati
    15 million
  79. __ children alone are affected annually by ascarids, with __ severe ocular larva migrans resulting in blindness
    10 thousand children and 750-blindness
  80. __ % of welfare children in Mississippi were positive for ascarids due to oral ingestion (report by State Health Office)
    53%
  81. __ cause in humans by Ancylostoma brazilienses and A. caninum but most authorities and text will list only A. brazilienses causing cutaneous larval migrans in zoonotic cases
    Cutaneous Larval Migrans
  82. What is the nickname for Cutaneous Larval Migrans?
    "Creeping Eruption"
  83. What are some similarities between Toxocara mystax(T.cati) and Toxocara canis?
    1. Toxocara mystax is the common ascarid to cats like T.canis is to the dog 2. Transtracheal migration is exactly the same as in T. canis 3. Although not written, it is belived that larval leak does occur with cats and T. cati
  84. What are some differences between Toxocara mystax (T. cati) and Toxocara canis?
    1. Transplacental route of infection does not occur with T. cati. Transmammary is the route in cats.
  85. __ does occurs in both the dog and cat. And does NO visceral migration.
    Toxascaris leonina
  86. __ follows a mucosal migration with the 2nd and 3rd molts occuring in the mucosa wall and the 4th stage entering the lumen of the gut to mature.
    Toxascaris leonina
  87. What is the prepatent period of Toxascaris leonina?
    10 weeks
  88. What are the 2 ways that Toxascaris leonina is transmissed?
    1. ingestion of the eggs(or larva too) -- most common method 2. Ingestion of the paratenic host
  89. What are some signs of Toxascaris leonina?
    minimal due to the lack of pathogenicity with no transplacental and no transmammary transmission; therefore the animal is not effected until near adulthood
  90. What is the life cycle of Toxascaris leonina?
    ingestion of eggs- hatch- molts- and mature to adult all within the intestinal tract
  91. Raccoons typically defecate in the same spot over and over again, what is the place called?
    "raccoon latrines"
  92. __ has been responsible for severe neurologic disease and the death of several childern in the United States
    Baylisascaris procyonis
  93. What are 3 floation solutions used?
    1. Sodium nitrate 2. Zinc sulfate 3. Sheather's
  94. What is the 3rd most common Nematode?
    Trichuriasis- whipworm
  95. What are the common whipworms?
    1. Trichuris vulpis- dog 2. Trichurs campanula- cat 3. trichurs serrate- cat 4. Trichuris trichura- man, pig and monkey
  96. unlike ascarids and ancylostoma that inhabit the small intestins, __ inhabit the cecum where they firmly attach to the anterior end and embed in the mucosa.
    Trichuris
  97. __ are the most common pathological worms encountered in veterinary medicine and human medicine.
    Nematodes
  98. Almost all puppies born in the US are infected with Toxocara canis and high percentage with Ancylostoma caninum; these puppies can begin to shed eggs as young as __
    2 to 3 weeks of age
  99. Hookworms are a well-known cause of cutaneous larva migrans (CLM) and recently, A. caninum has been recognized to be a cause of __
    chronic enterocolitis (Humans only)
  100. Several patients with __ were found to be infected with a single A. caninum adult, and serologic testing indicates that infection with this organism may be very common.
    eosinophilic enteritis
  101. Nematodes have arelatively large body cavity (__) containing fluid under a pressure.
    Pseudo-coelom
  102. The basic excretory system of nematodes consists of paired __ with a common midventral excretory pore and ducts that run nearly the full lenght of the body.
    unicellular glands
  103. Male nematodes caudal engs are often equipped qith a cuticular expansion called a ___
    copulatory bursa
  104. What are the stages of development of nematodes?
    1 cell, morula, vermiform embryo,
  105. What is the difference between vermiform embryo and 1st stage larvae?
    The former contains only one cell clusters as organs, whereas the latter displays clearly recognizable organs( esophagus, intestine, excretory organs)
  106. What are the 7 test that tell us what parasite we are dealing with? (in order from best to worst)
    1. necropsy 2. polymerase chain reaction 3. ELISA 4. Immunofluoescence 5. Centrifuge float 99% 6. Simple float 84% 7. Direct smean 17%
  107. Adult ancylostomiasis live where?
    small intestine
  108. Growth and maturation during ancylostomiasis after the ingestion for infective ova require between __ to __ days
    18 to 21
  109. Females during ancylostomasis lay large quantities of eggs that are passed in the feces and, under proper condition, hatch __ to __ hours
    48 to 72 hours
  110. The clinical picture in hookworm disease is dependent on what 3 things?
    1. virulence of the speices of hookworm involved 2. degree of exposure to infective 3. degree of resistance of host
  111. What are the major signs of ancylostomasis?
    1. associated with blood loss 2. and gastrointestinal irritation (weakness, unfitness, anemia, diarrhea, bloody or tarry stools, anorexia, depression, and death)
  112. Larvae of ancylostoma may wander through other internal organs, such as the liver and lungs producing secondary signs of __ and __
    hepatitis and penumonia
  113. __ is the primary cause of canine hookworm disease in most tropical and subtropical areas of the world
    A. caninum
  114. Transmammary transmission varies among species, but this route appears to be the PRIMARY method of __ infection in puppies
    Ancylostoma caninum
  115. Transmammary infection by __ larvae can cause profound anemia and death of puppies within 12 days after birth.
    Uncinaria stenocephala
  116. What is the primary method of transmission for Toxocara canis?
    Transplacental
  117. What presents perhaps the most pathogenic zoonotic infection besides Baylisascaris procyonis?
    Strongyloides
  118. Eggs of Baylisascaris procyonis are shed from raccoons undergo a __ week development period in the environment to become larvated.
    2-4 weeks
  119. __ larvae continues to grow as they migrate; larval penetration into the central nervous system may cayse irreparable damage or even death.
    Baylsascaris procyonis
  120. What is the specific gravity of Ascarids(rounds) and Ancylostoma (hooks)?
    1.06
  121. What is the specific gravity for Tricursis (whips)?
    1.15
  122. What is the specific gravity of Taenia (tapes)?
    1.23
  123. What is the specific gravity of Physaloptera(stomach)?
    1.24
  124. Nemex Plus
    pyrantel pamoate + Oxantel pamoate
  125. Telmin
    mebendazole
  126. Lopatol
    nitroscante
  127. What is another term for "in milk"
    galactogenic
  128. Toxocara can produce __ eggs in a single day and can spend up to a year in environment?
    200,000
  129. Which of the ascarids do not transtracheally migrate?
    Toxascaris leonina
  130. Toxocara canis infections in puppies less than one month of age are produced by migration of __ from the bitch to the pups in utero.
    2nd stage larvae
  131. How soon can fourth stage larvae be present in the puppy's infected with Toxocara canis be in the intestinal tract?
    3 days after birth
  132. What is the largest ascarid in dogs?
    Toxocara canis
  133. Eggs of Toxocara take _ weeks to embryonate and become infective
    2 weeks
  134. Treatment of Toxocara and Ancylostoma must be repeated two and three times at two week intervals due to ___ and the __
    visceral migration and "Larval Leak Syndrome"

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