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__, the movement of air in and out of the lungs, is composed of __ and __.
1) __ is the force that moves air into the lungs.
2) When pressure on the inside of the lungs decreases, what happens?
3) How is air pressure inside the lungs decreased? Due to __ between the two layers of the __, the lungs follow with the __ and __.
4) Muscles involved in expanding the thoracic cavity include the __ and __.
5) As the lungs expand in size, __ keeps the __ from sticking to each other so they do not collapse when internal air pressure is low.
1) atmospheric pressure
2) higher pressure air flows in from the outside
3) by increasing the size of the thoracic cavity; surface tension/ pleura/ chest wall/ expand
4) diaphragm (contracts and lowered)/ external intercostal muscles (pull ribs up and out= increasing volume which decreases pressure)
5) surfactant/ alveoli
1) The forces of expiration are due to the __ of lung and muscle tissues and from the __ within the __.
2) __ is aided by __ and __ wall muscles that compress the abdomen against the __.
1) elastic recoil/ surface tension/ alveoli
2) forced expiration/ thoracic and abdominal/ diaphragm
Control of Breathing
A. What is normal breathing?
a rhythmic, involuntary act
B. Respiratory Center
1) Groups of __ in the __ comprise the __, which controls __ by causing __ and __ and by adjusting the __ and __ of breathing.
2) The components of the __ include the __ of the __ and the __ of the __.
1) neurons/ brain stem/ respiratory center/ breathing/ inspiration/ expiration/ rate/ depth
2) respiratory center/ rhythmicity center/ medulla/ pneumotaxic area/ pons
B. Respiratory Center cont.
3) The __ includes two groups of neurons: the __ and __
a-b) What are each responsible for?
4) Neurons in the __ control the rate of __.
- 3) medullary rhyhmicity center/ dorsal respiratory group/ ventral respiratory group
- a) Dorsal respiratory group: responsible for the basic rhythm of breathing
- b) ventral respiratory group is active when more forceful breathing is required
- 4) pneumotaxic area/ breathing
lveolar Gas Exchanges
A) The __ are the sites of gas exchange between the atmos phere and the blood.
a) The alveoli are tiny __ clustered at the __ ends of the __; some alveoli have __ between them to assist in __ between alveoli
a) sacs/ distal/ alveolar ducts/ pores/ air exhange
C. Respiratory Membrane
1) The respiratory membrane consists of the __ of the __, the __ of the __, and the two fused __ of these layers.
2) __ occurs across this respiratory membrane.
1) epithelial cells/ alveolus/ endothelial cells/ capillary/ basement membranes
2) gas exchange
D. Diffusion across the Respiratory Membrane
1) Gases diffuse from areas of __ to areas of __.
2) In a mixture of gases, each gas accounts for a __ of the __; the amt of pressure each gas exerts is equal to its __.
3) When the __ is higher in the __ than it is in the __, __ will diffuse into the __.
4) When the __ of __ is greater in the blood than in the __, __ will diffuse out of the blood and into the __.
1) higher pressure/ lower pressure
2) portion/ total pressure/ partial pressure
3) partial pressure of oxygen/ alveolar air/ capillary blood/ oxygen/ blood
4)partial pressure/ carbon dioxide/ alveolar air/ carbon dioxide/ alveolus
A) Gases are transported in asssociation with __ in the blood or dissolved in the __.
A) molecules/ plasma
B. Oxygen Transport
1) Over __ of oxygen is carried in the blood bound to __ of RBC, producing __.
2) __ is unstable in areas where the concentration of oxygen is __, and gives up its oxygen molecules in those areas.
3) More oxygen is released as the __ of __ increases, as the blood becomes more __, and as __ increases.
4) A deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues is called __ and has a variety of causes.
1) 98%/ hemoglobin/ oxyhemoglobin
2) oxyhemoglobin/ low
3) blood concentration/ carbon dioxide/ acidic/ blood temp.
Carbon Dioxide Transport
1) Carbon dioxide may be transported dissolved in __, as __, or as __.
2) Most carbon dioxide is transported in the form of __.
1) blood plasma/ carbaminohemoglobin/ bicarbonate ions