BIO 371 E2 LAB 11

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shockwave
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BIO 371 E2 LAB 11
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2012-04-23 20:59:38
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BIO 371 E2 LAB 11
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BIO 371 CELL E2 LAB 11 GSU 2012
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  1. WHAT ARE THE ACTIVITY DIVIDING CELLS?
    NAME 2
    • MERISTEMATIC TISSUES IN PLANTS
    • EMBRYONIC TISSUES
  2. PROPHASE, METAPHASE ANAPHASE & TELOPHASE ARE PART OF WHAT CYCLE?
    MITOSIS
  3. WHAT IS THE COMPLETE CELL CYCLE?
  4. DEFINE INTERPHASE
    • considered the first and last stage of plant cell division. It is the stage in which the cell is growing in size and replicating its DNA in preparation for division. The nucleus is apparent.
  5. DEFINE PROPHASE
    • REPLICATED DNA CONDENSES INTO CHROMOSOMES. NECLEAR MEMBRANE STARTS TO DISOLVE.
  6. DEFINE METAPHASE
    CHROMOSOMES ALINE TO CENTER ALONG METAPAHSE PLATE. SPINDLE FIBERS. NEUCLAR MEMBRANE GONE.
  7. T OR F
    DO SPINDLE FIBERS DO NOT STRETCH OR CONTRACT. MATERIALS ARE ADDED/REMOVED AS THE SPINDLE CHANGES SHAPE.
    TRUE
  8. NAME THE STAGE
    • PROPHASE
    • NOTICE CHROMOSOME FORMATION AND NECLEAR MEMBRANE DISOLVING.
  9. NAME THE STAGE
    • INTERPHASE.
    • NOTICE NUCLEUS
  10. NAME THE STAGE
    METAPHASE.

    CHROMOSOMES IN CENTER METAPHASE PLATE. SPINDLE FIBERS.
  11. NAME THE PHASE
    • ANAPHASE.
    • CENTEOMES DIVIDE. SISTER CHROMATIDS SEPARATE.
  12. NAME THE PHASE:
    • TELOPHASE
    • NOTICE NUCLEAR MEMBRES FORM.
  13. THE ONION HAS HOW MANY CHROMOSOMES?
    16
  14. ANAPHASE OR TELOPHASE?
    TELOPHASE.

    ANAPHASE ENDS WHEN THE 2 SETS OF SINGLE STRANDED CHROMOSOMES ARE AT OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL.
  15. CELL DIVISION IS COMPLETED DURING WHAT PHASE?
    TELOPHASE.
  16. IN WHAT PHASE IS A CELL PLATE FORMED?
    • TELOPHASE. ONLY IN PLANTS! ANIMALS HAVE MEMBRANES..CLEAVAGE FURROW.
  17. WHAT ARE CENTRIOLES? WHO HAS THEM?
    • ANIMALS ONLY.
    • a cylindrical shaped cell structure found in most eukaryotic cells, though it is absent in higher plants and most fungi.The walls of each centriole are usually composed of nine triplets of microtubules (protein of the cytoskeleton).
  18. DEFINE CENTROSOME
    Centrosomes are associated with the nuclear membrane during prophase of the cell cycle. In mitosis the nuclear membrane breaks down and the centrosome nucleated microtubules (parts of the cytoskeleton) can interact with the chromosomes to build the mitotic spindle.
  19. DURING PROPHASE, 2 PAIRS OF ________ ARE ORGANIZED WITHIN THE ________.
    • CENTRIOLES
    • CENTROSOME.

    THEY BEGIN TO MOVE APART & MIGGRATE TO OPPOSITE ENDS OF THE CELL.
  20. DEFINE ASTER/ASTRAL RAYS.
    • A CONFIGURATION OF FIBERS THAT RADIATE FROM THE CENTRIOLES. LOOKS LIKE SPOKES ON A WHEEL.
    • RAYS ARE THE SPOKES.
  21. DEFINE MITOTIC INDEX
    % OF DIVIDING CELLS UNDERGOING MITOSIS.
  22. T OR F
    THE ESTIMATED MITOTIC INDEX IS USUALLY UNDERESTIMATED, BUT SOMEWHAT RELATIVE FOR STAGES OF.
    TRUE
  23. WHAT TYPE OF CELLS ARE PRODUCED FROM MITOSIS?
    two (genetically identical) diploid cells
  24. IN MIEOSIS, HOW MANY TIMES TO THE CHROSOMES DUPLICATE?
    HOW MANY TIMES DOES THE CELL SPLIT?
    • 1 DUPLICATION
    • 2 CELL DIVISIONS.
  25. WHAT WAS USED TO STUDY MIEOSIS IN THE LAB?
    • POLLEN GRAINS OF THE LILY. GOUND IN THE ANTLERS. LOOKING AT THE MOTHER CELLS.
    • MANY IN INTERPHASE OF THE FIRST MEIOTIC DIVISION.
  26. HOMOLOGOUS CHROSOMES, EACH COMPOSED OF 2 CHROMITIDS, LIE ADJECENT TO ONE ANOTHER (SYNAPSE), FORM TETRADS AND EXCHANGE GENETIC COMPONETS VIA CROSS-OVER.
    NAME THE PHASE.
    PROPHASE I
  27. MEIOSIS I CONSISTS OF WHAT PHASES?
    FROM INTERPHASE G2 - TELOPHASE I
  28. IN MITOSIS, HOW MANY TIMES DOES THE CELL DIVIDE?
    ONLY ONCE
  29. IN MEIOSIS, HOW MANY TIMES DOES THE CELL DIVIDE?
    TWICE, PRODUCING 4 HAPLOID CELLS.
  30. WHAT PHASE?
    doubling of homologous chromosomes (identical chromosomes - 2 pairs of each sister chromatids)
    PROPHASE I
  31. WHAT PHASE?
    lining of homologous chromosomes in the middle
    METAPHASE I
  32. WHAT PHASE? Separation of homologous chromosomes to form two cells with 2n of the chromosomes
    ANAPHASE I
  33. WHAT PHASE?
    separation of chromosomes into chromatids (2n to 1n)
    ANAPHASE II
  34. WHAT STAGE IN MEIOSIS RESULTS IN 4 NEW 1n CELLS?
    TELOPHASE II
  35. This process occurs in all diploid (2n) cells, except for the sex cells, which will produce gametes for reproductive purposes.
    MITOSIS
  36. WHEN COLCHICINE IS APPLIED HOW DOES IT EFFECT MITOSIS
    IT INHIBITS THE ASSEMBLY OF MICROTUBLES, AND STOPS MITOSIS AT METAPHASE. NO SPINDLE FIBERS.
  37. colchicine effects on mitosis..NAME 2
    REVERSABLE..ADD H20

    2X CHROSOME AMOUNT...TETRAPLOID RATHER THAN DIPLOID. POSSIBLE AT ALL STAGES.
  38. WHAT IS THE MITOTIC INDEX FORMULA?
    % OF CELLS IN STAGE X MINUTES
  39. IN WHAT TYPE OF CELL DOES MITOSIS OCCUR? WHAT ABOUT MEIOSIS?
    • MITOSIS:SOMATIC
    • MEIOSIS: SEX CELLS OR OVARIES/TESTIES
  40. HOW MANY CELLULAR DIVISIONS OCCUR IN MITOSIS? MEIOSIS?
    • MITOSIS: ONE
    • MEIOSIS: TWO
  41. HOW MANY DAUGHTER CELLS ARE FORMED =BY MITOSIS? MEIOSIS?
    • MITOSIS: TWO
    • MEIOSIS: FOUR
  42. WHAT IS THE CHROMOSOME NUMBER IN DAUGHTER CELLS FORMED BY MITOSIS FROM DIPLOID PARENT CELLS? WHAT ABOUT MEIOSIS?
    MITOSIS: PRODUCES 2 DAUGHTER CELLS. EACH OF WITCH ARE 2n (DIPLOID). ALL SAME.

    MEIOSIS:PRODUCES 4 DAUGHTER CELL. EACH 1n (HAPLOID). ALL DIFFERENT.
  43. IN MITOSIS, ARE DAUGHTER CELLS IDENTICAL TO OR DIFFERENT FROM PARENT CELLS? WHAT ABOUT MIEOSIS?
    • MITOSIS: IDENTICAL
    • MEIOSIS: DIFFERENT
  44. IN MITOSIS WHEN DOES SYNAPSIS AND CROSSING OVER OCCUR? WHAT ABOUTR MEISOIS?
    • MITOSIS: NEVER
    • MEIOSIS: PROPHASE I
  45. T OR F
    MITOSIS OCCURS IN ALL ORGANISMS, WHILST MEIOSIS OCCURS IN MAMALS, PLANTS AND FUNGI.
    TRUE
  46. THE DIPLOID NUMBER OF THE LILY IS WHAT?
    24
  47. WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF THE MEGASPORE MOTHER CELL.
    • ACTS LIKE OVARY. 4 ARE FORMED ONLY ONE SURVIVES.
    • There is only one megasporocyte (megaspore mothercell) in each megasporangium. Following meiosis, three of the haploid meiospores die, and only onewill divide mitotically to form the megagametophyte. Megagametophytes, called embryo sacs inangiosperms, often consist of eight nuclei distributed among seven cells.
  48. T OR F
    MITOSIS CAN OCCUR IN BOTH DIPLOID (2n) OR HAPLIOD (1n) CELLS?
    TRUE
  49. WHAT THE HELL IS A SOMATIC CELL?
    any cell other than a gamete, germ cell, gametocyte or undifferentiated stem cell
  50. WHERE DOES MITOSIS OCCUR? MIEOSIS?
    MITOSIS: ALL BODY CELLS INCLUDING GERM CELLS.

    MEIOSIS: ONLY IN THE GERM CELLS.
  51. MITOSIS/MEIOSIS. WHICH IS A EQUATIONAL DIVISION? WHICH IS A REDUCTION DIVISION?
    • MITOSIS: EQUATIONAL
    • MEIOSIS: REDUCTIONAL
  52. MITOSIS/MEIOSIS.
    NUMBER OF DAUGHTER CELLS
    • MITOSIS: 2
    • MEIOSIS: 4
  53. MITOSIS./MIEOSIS.
    WHEN DO THE CENTERMERES SPLIT?
    • MEIOSIS: SPLIT ANAPHASE II, NOT ANAPHASE I
    • MITOSIS: SPLIT IN ANAPHASE
  54. Higher frequency of dividing cells in colchicine treated roots. WHY?
    This would be due to the fact that the cells can't go past metaphase (no spindle fiber formations), and thus just appear that there is alot of cells that are reproducing.
  55. Haploid number of the Lily?
    12 or n
  56. How many chromosomes in each mature pollen after meiosis?
    12 or n
  57. How many pollen grains are formed following meiotic division of a pollen mother
    cell?
    One. You actually have one Ovum and 3 polar bodies
  58. Megaspore mother cell function?
    Ovum production or reproduction.
  59. Grasshopper...diploid /haploid #'s
    Grasshopper...diploid 24 or 2n & haploid in 12 or n
  60. Id the number of chromosomes in:
    a human primary oocyte?
    First polar body
    Secondary oocyte
    Mature ovum
    Mature sperm cell
    Zygote
    • human primary oocyte?.....46 or 2n
    • First polar body....23 or n
    • Secondary oocyte.....23 or n
    • Mature ovum.....23 or n
    • Mature sperm cell.....23 or n
    • Zygote....46 or 2n

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