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Name four protooncogenes, and what they are associated with?
- bcr-abl: philadelphia chr, CML
- Ras: signal transduction, lots o cancers
- N-Myc: neuroblastoma
- Erb-B2: Tyrosine Kinase, epidermal growth factor, breast and ovarian cancers.
Lithium can induce Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus by what mechanism?
Inhibition of vasopressin receptors in collecting tubules.
What is the only radiolucent urinary calculus?
Uric Acid stones.
Cryptococcus Neoformans looks like what on india ink stain?
Round or oval budding yeast.
What is the first line treatment for myoclonic seizures?
What is the first line treatment for partial (simple and complex) seizures?
Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a complication of?
Measles, without the M protein antigen.
Low c1 esterase is diagnostic of?
MOA of mifepristone?
What gram positive (motile) rod produces a narrow zone of beta hemolysis?
Where does cutaneuous lymph from the posterior calf drain to?
What is the main site of lipid absorption?
Vasopressin increases collecting duct permeability to what two substances?
What are two side effects of isoniazid?
- B6 deficiency
- Direct Hepatocyte toxicity.
What is the MOA of isoniazid?
Inhibits Mycolic acid synthesis.
What are mycolic acids, where are they found?
- Long, branched, saturated fatty acids
- Found in mycobacteria cell walls.
What drug prolongs QT significantly but has a low incidence of torsades?
Activity of which enzyme causes the chloride shift in RBCs?
Carbonic Anhydrase: Increased bicarb -> bicarb leaves cell -> neutrality replaced by chloride coming into cell.
What is the most common cause of epiglottitis?
What is the pathophys of lipid A?
Causes activation of macrophages -> massive secretion of IL-1 and TNFa.
A glomus tumor arises from what cells?
Modified smooth muscle cells with a thermoregulatory function.
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