A&P Chapter 17-Blood

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akhambay
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149373
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A&P Chapter 17-Blood
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2012-04-22 20:31:22
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blood erythro leuko
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Chapter 17 Review. Definitions, A&P place questions, labs, images
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  1. EMBOLUS
    blood, clot, fatty mass, bubble of air, other debris
  2. PLATELET
    cell fragment found in blood; involved in clotting
  3. PLASMA
    NONliving fluid component of blood within which formed elements and various solutes are suspended and circulated
  4. ALBUMIN
    most abundant plasma PROTEIN
  5. HEMOGLOBIN
    oxygen transporting protein of erythrocytes
  6. OXYHEMOGLOBIN
    oxygen bound form of hemoglobin
  7. BILIRUBIN
    yellow pigment of bile
  8. LEUKOCYTOSIS
    WBC <11000; normal response to infection in body
  9. APLASTIC ANEMIA
    destruction/inhibition of red marrow by certain drugs/chemicals, ionizing radiation, viruses
  10. POLYCYTHEMIA
    abnormal excess of erythrocytes that increase blood viscosity causing it to sludge or flow sluggishly
  11. SICKLE-CELL ANEMIA
    abnormal hemoglobin
  12. LEUKOPENIA
    abnormally low WBC
  13. PERNICIOUS ANEMIA
    due to deficit of B12, affects vegetarians more
  14. INFECTION MONONUCLEOSIS
    "kissing disease" highly contagious; viral disease caused by Epstein-Barr virus
  15. EMBOLISM
    obstruction of a blood vessel by an embolus floating in blood
  16. SERUM
    amber-colored fluid that exudes from clotted blood as clot shrinks; plasma without clotting factors
  17. HEPARIN
    natural anticoagulant secreted into blood plasma
  18. WARFARIN
    prevent blood clotting
  19. ERYTHROPOIETIN
    hormone that stimulates production of RBCs
  20. THROMBOCYTOPENIA
    reduction in number of platelets circulating blood
  21. HEMOPHILIA
    term loosely applied to several different hereditary bleeding disorders that exhibit similar s/s
  22. RH FACTOR
    agglutinogens
  23. ABO BLOOD GROUPS
    based on presence/absence of agglutinogens
  24. ERYTHRO-
    red
  25. LEUKO-
    white
  26. HEMATOCRIT
    percentage of total blood volume occupied by erythrocytes
  27. HEMO-
    blood
  28. HEMATO-
    blood
  29. -POIESIS
    to make
  30. -CYTE
    cell
  31. -BLAST
    bud
  32. RETICULUM
    network
  33. HYPOXIC
    inadequate oxygen
  34. ANEMIA
    "lacking blood" RBCs
  35. CHEMOTAXIS
    movement of cell toward or away from, organism, or part of organism
  36. DIAPEDESIS
    passage of WBC through intact vessel walls into tissue
  37. POLYMORPHONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTE
    with granulocytes; with nucleus
  38. RETICULOCYTE
    immature erythrocyte
  39. BASOPHIL
    GRANULAR; release histamine and others; contains heparin
  40. MONOCYTE
    large signle-nucleus WBC; AGRANULAR
  41. LYMPHOCYTE
    AGRANULAR; arises from bone marrow and becomes functionally mature in lymphoid organs of body; mounts immune response by direct cell attack or via antibodies
  42. EOSINOPHIL
    kills parasitic worms; complex role in allergy
  43. NEUTROPHIL
    phagocytize bacteria, most abundant leukocyte
  44. What is the most abundant component of plasma?
    Water
  45. Name the three formed elements of blood.
    Erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets
  46. Normal value of Hb for infants.
    14-20
  47. Normal hemoglobin for adult females.
    13-18
  48. Normal hemoglobin for adult males.
    12-16
  49. Define hematopoiesis.
    Blood cell formation
  50. Where are blood cells formed?
    red bone marrow in bones of axial skeleton and girdles
  51. What are reticulocytes?
    Immature RBC
  52. What helps provide a rough index of the rate of RBC production?
    Reticulocyte counts
  53. Which hormone is a direct stimulus for RBC formation?
    Erythropoietin
  54. What can cause the release of EPO?
    • 1. reduced number of RBC d/t hemorrhage or too much RBC destruction
    • 2. insufficient Hb per RBC
    • 3. reduced availability of oxygen like in high altitudes
  55. How long is the lifespan of a RBC?
    100-120 days
  56. Which abnormal hemoglobin causes sickle-cell anemia?
    Hb S
  57. What is the name of practiced by some athletes that causes artifically induced polycythemia?
    Blood Doping
  58. What is diapedesis?
    process WBC use to sli pout of the capillary blood vessels
  59. Which leukocytes are involved in allergic response?
    eosinophil and basophil
  60. Which leukocytes are granular?
    Neutrophil, Eosinophil, Basophil
  61. Which leukocytes are agranular?
    lymphocyte and monocyte
  62. Which cells are involved in immune response by acting directly against virus-infected cells?
    T lymphocytes
  63. Calcium, serotonin, enzymes, ADP, and platelet-derived growth factor are all components of ____
    platelets
  64. define hemostasis
    hemo=blood stasis=halting; stoppage of bleeding
  65. Name the three stages of coagulation
    1. Vascular spasm 2. Platelet plug formation 3. Coagulation
  66. What happens during the platelet plug formation step of coagulatioin?
    Injury to lining of vessel exposes collagen fibners; platelets adhere. Platelets release chemicals that make nearby paltelets stick, which forms platelet plug
  67. Which blood type are universal recipients? WHY?
    AB; No plasma antibodies (agglutinins)
  68. Which blood types are universal donors? WHY?
    Type O; No AB antigens (agglutinogens)
  69. One molecule of hemoglobin can bind a maximum of _____ oxygen molecules.
    A. 1
    B. 2
    C. 3
    D. 4
    4
  70. A patient who lacks intrinsic factor would likely develop:
    -sickle cell anemia
    -pernicious anemia
    -iron deficiency anemia
    pernicious anemia
  71. Which WBC is highly phagocytic cell with a "U" shaped nucleus
    Macrophage
  72. Which WBC has Bilobed nucleus and dark-staining cytoplasmic granules ?
    Basophil
  73. Overproduction of white blood cells is called _____.
    A. leukopenia.
    B. leukopoiesis.
    C. leukocytosis.
    D. polycythemia.
    leukocytosis
  74. Which of the following is true regarding the extrinsic pathway of blood clotting?
    A. The extrinsic pathway does not involve calcium ions.
    B. The extrinsic pathway is independent of procoagulants.
    C. The extrinsic pathway is slower than the intrinsic pathway of blood clotting.
    D. The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.
    The extrinsic pathway is triggered by tissue factor.
  75. What Converts fibrinogen to fibrin ?
    Thrombin
  76. What is Fibrin-digesting enzyme?
    Plasmin
  77. What Stimulates blood vessel healing ?
    Platelet-derived growth factor
  78. Blood type is determined by:
    A. antibodies present on the surface of erythrocytes.
    B. glycoproteins present in the plasma.
    C. antibodies present in the plasma.
    D. glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.
    glycoproteins present on the surface of erythrocytes.
  79. Hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN) can develop when an Rh+ woman is pregnant with an Rh- baby.
    A.True
    B. False
    False
  80. What blood type Would make antibodies to the A agglutinogen but not the B agglutinogen?
    Person with type B blood
  81. What blood type Would make antibodies to the B agglutinogen but not the A agglutinogen ?
    Person with type A blood
  82. What blood type Would have type A and B agglutinogens ?
    AB
  83. What blood type Would make antibodies to the A and B agglutinogens ?
    O

  84. Label the formed elements of blood.

    Neutrophils
    Monocyte
    Platelets
    Lymphocyte
    Erythrocytes
    • Neutrophils D
    • Monocyte C
    • Platelets A
    • Lymphocyte E
    • Erythrocytes B

  85. Label the cell stages of erythropoiesis.
    Erythroblast
    Normoblast
    Proerythroblast
    Hemocytoblast
    Reticulocyte
    • Erythroblast C
    • Normoblast D
    • Proerythroblast B
    • Hemocytoblast A
    • Reticulocyte E

  86. Label the image.
    Plasma cell
    Macrophage
    Monocyte
    Lymphocyte
    • Plasma cell D
    • Macrophage C
    • Monocyte A
    • Lymphocyte B
  87. Their deep red nucleus has two lobes connected by a broad band of nuclear material; large, coarse granules stain red with acid dyes
    Neutrophils
    Eosinophils
    Basophils
    Agranulocytes
    Platelets
    Eosinophils
  88. Their cytoplasm contains large, coarse granules that stain purplish-black from basic dyes.
    Neutrophils
    Eosinophils
    Basophils
    Agranulocytes
    Platelets
    Basophils
  89. Assist platelets to adhere to the collagen fibers.
    Von Willebrand factor
    Tissue factor
    Prothrombin
    Thrombin
    Serum
    Von Willebrand factor
  90. Triggers the "shortcut" extrinsic mechanism that bypasses several steps of the intrinsic pathway:

    Von Willebrand factor
    Tissue factor III
    Prothrombin
    Thrombin
    Serum
    Tissue factor III
  91. Catalyzes conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin strands
    Von Willebrand factor
    Tissue factor III
    Prothrombin
    Thrombin
    Serum
    Thrombin
  92. Plasma minus the clotting proteins
    Von Willebrand factor
    Tissue factor
    Prothrombin
    Thrombin
    Serum
    Serum
  93. The final step in clot formation is:
    1.formation of prothrombin activator.
    2.fibrinogen → fibrin.
    3.the release of chemical by platelets.
    4.platelet plug formation.
    5.prothrombin → thrombin.
    fibrinogen → fibrin.
  94. The process of actively metabolizing oxygen to produce bleach and hydrogen to kill bacteria is known as:
    1.amoeboid movement.
    2.respiratory burst.
    3.diapedesis.
    4.chemotaxis.
    respiratory burst.
  95. Which of the following substances is responsible for limiting a platelet plug to the immediate area of damage?
    1.Prostacyclin
    2.Adenosine diphosphate
    3.Thromboxane A2
    4.Serotonin
    Prostacyclin

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