Bio Chp 22 #1

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  1. Where plants are plentiful, what other organisms take hold and thrive?
    Animals, fungi and microorganisms
  2. What do plants provide?
    • the base for food chains on land
    • shade
    • shelter
    • oxygen for animals
  3. How old are the oldest fossil evidence of plants?
    470 million years ago
  4. What kingdom to plants belong to?
  5. What exactly are plants?
    Multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose
  6. What do plants develop from and then what do they carry out?
    • From multicellular embryos a
    • Carry out photosynthesis using green pigments chlorophyll a and b
  7. What are some of the organisms plants include?
    • trees
    • shrubs
    • grasses
    • mosses
    • ferns
  8. If all plants aren't autotrophs, then what are they?
    Parasites or sabrobes that live on decaying materials
  9. What did a well-known botanist once describe plants as?
    "stationary animals that eat sunlight"
  10. What are the two alternating phases in the plant life cycles?
    a diploin phase (2N) and a haploid phase (N)
  11. What are the diploid phase and haploid phase known as?
    Alternation of generations
  12. What generally occurs during the two phases of the life cycle?
    Mitosis and meiosis alternate to produce the two types of reproductive cells
  13. What are the two types of reproductive cells?
    Gametes and Spores
  14. What is the diploid phase known as?
    The sporophyte (spore-producing plant)
  15. What is the haploid phase known as?
    The gametophyte (gamete-producing plant)
  16. What are plant spores?
    Haploid reproductive cells formed in the sporophyte plant by meiosis that can grow into new individuals
  17. What new individual is produced by the sporophyte plant in meiosis?
    a haploid spore
  18. What is a gamete?
    A reproductive cell that is produced by mitosis and fuses during fertilization with another gamete
  19. When a gamete fuses during fertilization with another gamete what is produced?
    A diploid sporophyte
  20. What were the earliest plants and what do they require to reproduce?
    Mosses and ferns, require water
  21. What plants, that appeared more recently, have reproductive cycles that can be carried out without water?
    Seed plants
  22. What type of asexal reproduction do many palnts alos have forms of?
    Vegetative Reproduction
  23. What do the lives of plants center on?
    The need for sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange, and the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body
  24. As a result of sunlight, every plant displays what?
    Adaptations shaped by the need to gather sunlight
  25. What are some characteristics of photosynthetic organs, leaves that helpt to maximize light absorption?
    Broad, flat and arranged on stem to recieve more sunlight
  26. Since sunny conditions can cause _______ _______ to dry out, plants have what?
    Living tissue, developed structures that limit water loss
  27. As plants absorb water, they also absorb _______?
  28. What are minerals?
    Nutrients in the soil that are needed for plant growth
  29. Why do plants require oxygen and why do they require carbon dioxide?
    • oxygen: to support cellular respiration
    • carbon dioxide: to carry out photosynthesis
  30. What must plants do with gases?
    Exchange them with the atmosohere without losign excessive amounts of water through evaporation
  31. Where do plants get water and minerals? make food?
    Through their roots, in their leaves
  32. What do most plants have for movement of water and nutrients?
    Specialized tissues that carry water and nutrients upward from the soil and distribute the products of photosynthesis throughout the plant body
  33. How do simpler types of platns carry out functions like the movement of water and nutrients and the ditribution of the products from photosynthesis?
    Through diffusion
  34. Did plants exist for most of earth's history?
  35. For most of life's history, where was life concentrated?
    Oceans, lakes and streams
  36. __________ and ____________ added the __________ to our planet's _____________ and provided _______ for __________ and ___________.
    Algae, photosynthetic prokaryotes, oxygen, atmosphere, food, animals, mircroorganisms
  37. What happened to life on earth when plants appeared?
    Much of it changed
  38. How did the appearance of plants change the environment?
    New ecosystems emerged, and organic matter began to form soil
  39. What are algae?
    Photosynthetic, plantlike protists of which many or multicellular
  40. What did the first plants evolve from?
    An organism much like the multicellular green algae living today
  41. What are the similarities between plants and multicelluar green algae?
    • Algae...
    • have size, color and appearance of plants
    • similar reproductive cycles
    • identical cell walls and photosynthetic pigments
  42. Are plants closely related to certain groups of green algae?
    Yes, DNA sequences suggest it
  43. What were the ancestors of the first plants?
  44. What do the oldest known fossils of plants show?
    Plants were similar to today's mosses
  45. How were early plants like mosses?
    Had simple structures, grew close to the damp ground, and were still dependent on water to complete thier life cycles
  46. Several major groups of plants evolved including...?
    • Mosses and their relatives
    • Ferns and their relatives
    • Cone-bearing plants
    • Flowering plants
  47. What do Botanists divide the plant kingdom into four groups based on?
    Water-conducting tisuues, seeds, and flowers
  48. What are two other ways plants are classified?
    Reproductive structures and body plan
  49. Today, how can plant scientists classify palnts more precisely?
    By comparing DNA sequences of various species
  50. Where had plants been thought to evolve from?
    Green algae living in the sea
  51. Since 1994, who has begun to change our view of plant relationships and how?
    A team of biologists from 12 nations through their project "Deep Green" that has provided strong evidence that the first plants evolved from green algae living in fresh water
  52. What did a team of biologists from 12 different nations do?
    Change our view of plant relationships by providing strong evidence from thier project "Deep Green" that plants evolved from green algae livingin fresh water
  53. How many species of flowing plants are there?
    235,000 almost 90% of all living plant species
  54. How many speceis of Cone-bearing plants are there?
  55. How many species of Ferns and their relatives are there?
  56. How many species of mosses and their relatives are there?
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Bio Chp 22 #1
2012-05-07 01:19:25
Bio Chp 22

Oranges! ;p
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