Bio Chp 22 #1
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. What would you like to do?
Where plants are plentiful, what other organisms take hold and thrive?
Animals, fungi and microorganisms
What do plants provide?
- the base for food chains on land
- oxygen for animals
How old are the oldest fossil evidence of plants?
470 million years ago
What kingdom to plants belong to?
What exactly are plants?
Multicellular eukaryotes that have cell walls made of cellulose
What do plants develop from and then what do they carry out?
- From multicellular embryos a
- Carry out photosynthesis using green pigments chlorophyll a and b
What are some of the organisms plants include?
If all plants aren't autotrophs, then what are they?
Parasites or sabrobes that live on decaying materials
What did a well-known botanist once describe plants as?
"stationary animals that eat sunlight"
What are the two alternating phases in the plant life cycles?
a diploin phase (2N) and a haploid phase (N)
What are the diploid phase and haploid phase known as?
Alternation of generations
What generally occurs during the two phases of the life cycle?
Mitosis and meiosis alternate to produce the two types of reproductive cells
What are the two types of reproductive cells?
Gametes and Spores
What is the diploid phase known as?
The sporophyte (spore-producing plant)
What is the haploid phase known as?
The gametophyte (gamete-producing plant)
What are plant spores?
Haploid reproductive cells formed in the sporophyte plant by meiosis that can grow into new individuals
What new individual is produced by the sporophyte plant in meiosis?
a haploid spore
What is a gamete?
A reproductive cell that is produced by mitosis and fuses during fertilization with another gamete
When a gamete fuses during fertilization with another gamete what is produced?
A diploid sporophyte
What were the earliest plants and what do they require to reproduce?
Mosses and ferns, require water
What plants, that appeared more recently, have reproductive cycles that can be carried out without water?
What type of asexal reproduction do many palnts alos have forms of?
What do the lives of plants center on?
The need for sunlight, water and minerals, gas exchange, and the transport of water and nutrients throughout the plant body
As a result of sunlight, every plant displays what?
Adaptations shaped by the need to gather sunlight
What are some characteristics of photosynthetic organs, leaves that helpt to maximize light absorption?
Broad, flat and arranged on stem to recieve more sunlight
Since sunny conditions can cause _______ _______ to dry out, plants have what?
Living tissue, developed structures that limit water loss
As plants absorb water, they also absorb _______?
What are minerals?
Nutrients in the soil that are needed for plant growth
Why do plants require oxygen and why do they require carbon dioxide?
- oxygen: to support cellular respiration
- carbon dioxide: to carry out photosynthesis
What must plants do with gases?
Exchange them with the atmosohere without losign excessive amounts of water through evaporation
Where do plants get water and minerals? make food?
Through their roots, in their leaves
What do most plants have for movement of water and nutrients?
Specialized tissues that carry water and nutrients upward from the soil and distribute the products of photosynthesis throughout the plant body
How do simpler types of platns carry out functions like the movement of water and nutrients and the ditribution of the products from photosynthesis?
Did plants exist for most of earth's history?
For most of life's history, where was life concentrated?
Oceans, lakes and streams
__________ and ____________ added the __________ to our planet's _____________ and provided _______ for __________ and ___________.
Algae, photosynthetic prokaryotes, oxygen, atmosphere, food, animals, mircroorganisms
What happened to life on earth when plants appeared?
Much of it changed
How did the appearance of plants change the environment?
New ecosystems emerged, and organic matter began to form soil
What are algae?
Photosynthetic, plantlike protists of which many or multicellular
What did the first plants evolve from?
An organism much like the multicellular green algae living today
What are the similarities between plants and multicelluar green algae?
- have size, color and appearance of plants
- similar reproductive cycles
- identical cell walls and photosynthetic pigments
Are plants closely related to certain groups of green algae?
Yes, DNA sequences suggest it
What were the ancestors of the first plants?
What do the oldest known fossils of plants show?
Plants were similar to today's mosses
How were early plants like mosses?
Had simple structures, grew close to the damp ground, and were still dependent on water to complete thier life cycles
Several major groups of plants evolved including...?
- Mosses and their relatives
- Ferns and their relatives
- Cone-bearing plants
- Flowering plants
What do Botanists divide the plant kingdom into four groups based on?
Water-conducting tisuues, seeds, and flowers
What are two other ways plants are classified?
Reproductive structures and body plan
Today, how can plant scientists classify palnts more precisely?
By comparing DNA sequences of various species
Where had plants been thought to evolve from?
Green algae living in the sea
Since 1994, who has begun to change our view of plant relationships and how?
A team of biologists from 12 nations through their project "Deep Green" that has provided strong evidence that the first plants evolved from green algae living in fresh water
What did a team of biologists from 12 different nations do?
Change our view of plant relationships by providing strong evidence from thier project "Deep Green" that plants evolved from green algae livingin fresh water
How many species of flowing plants are there?
235,000 almost 90% of all living plant species
How many speceis of Cone-bearing plants are there?
How many species of Ferns and their relatives are there?
How many species of mosses and their relatives are there?
What would you like to do?
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