LS2 Lecture 1

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dante01
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149387
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LS2 Lecture 1
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2012-04-22 22:47:06
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Midterm
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  1. Hierachy of Organization
    • 1. Atoms
    • 2. Macromolecules
    • 3. Cells
    • 4. Tissue
    • 5. Organ
    • 6. Organ system
    • 7. Organism
  2. What can biology be viewed as?
    Hierachy of units
  3. Nervous system
    • 1. Fast acting cntrol system
    • 2. Responds to internal and external changes
  4. Muscular system
    • 1. Allows manipulation of environment
    • 2. Locomotion
    • 3. Facial expression
    • 4. Maintains posture
    • 5. Produces Heat
  5. Endocrine system
    • 1. Glands secrete hormones that regulate
    • -Growth
    • -reproduction
    • -nutrient use
  6. Cardiovascular system
    • 1.Blood vessels transport blood
    • -carries oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • -Also carries nutrients and waste
    • 2. Heart pumps blood
  7. Lymphatic/Immune System
    • 1. Picks up fluid leaked from blood vessels
    • 2. Houses white blood cells(lymphocytes)
    • 3. Mounts attack against foreign substances in the body
  8. Respiratory system
    • 1. Keeps blood supplied with oxygen
    • 2. Removes carbon dioxide
    • 3. Gas exchange occurs through walls of air sacs in the lungs
  9. Digestive system
    • 1. Breaks down food into absorbale units
    • 2. Indigestible foddstuffs eliminated as feces
  10. Urinary system
    • 1. Eliminates nitrogenous wastes
    • 2. Regulates water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance
  11. Male reproductive system
    • 1. Overall function is to produce offspring
    • 2. Testes produce sperm an male sex hormones
  12. Female reproductive system
    • 1. Overall function to produce offspring
    • 2. Ovaries produce eggs and female sex hormones
    • 3. Mammary glands produce milk
  13. Covalent bonds
    • 1. Sharing of electrons
    • -Polar covalent bond; different electronegativites
    • -Non polar covalent bond: If this sharing is EXACTLY equal then the bond is called a non-polar covalent bond(same element; H2, Cl2, O2)
  14. Ionic bonds
    • 1. Giving up an electron
    • -Ex. Na+Cl-
    • -water shields ions from interacting
  15. Hydrogen bonds
    • 1. Weak bonds
    • 2. Non covalent interaction between specific polar bonds
    • -a hydrogen atom and electronegative atom (Oxygen, Nitrogen)
  16. Van der Waals Interactions
    • 1. Weak bonds
    • 2. Non covalent interaction between nonpolar bonds
  17. Polar molecules tend to be......
    • 1. Hydrophillic substances
    • 2. Ionic or polar
    • 3. Often dissolve in water due to hydrogen bonds
  18. Nonpolar molecules are called....
    1. hydrophobic because they tend to aggregate with other non-polar molecules
  19. Water properties
    • 1. Cohesive and surface tension
    • 2. Solvent of life
    • 3. Temperature moderation
    • 4. Existence in multiple states
  20. Adhesion
    • 1. Disimilar molecules attracting eachother
    • Ex. Water clinging to galss in test tubes
  21. Cohesion
    • 1. Simialr molecules attracting each other
    • -Results in water high surface tension
    • -Results in capillary action (water pulled to the top of tree againts gravity)
    • - solar energy heats the top molecule causing it to break loose from the chain. As it does so it pulls the next molecule up
  22. Water: Temperature Moderation
    • 1.Water stores and releases heat into the air
    • 2. Controls changes in body temperature
    • 3. High specific heat
  23. Top molecules in Human body
    • 1. Oxygen (65%)
    • 2. Carbon (18%)
    • 3. Hydrogen (10%)
    • 4. Nitrogen (3%)
  24. What keeps the electrons in check?
    The attraction between positive and negative
  25. Electron with highest potential energy
    • Outermost
    • - takes alot of energy to move from natural state which is near the nucleus
  26. Whats determines if an atom is reactant or not?
    1. Depends on outermost shell

    • -Full: Atoms is going to be inert
    • -Not full: Atom is reactant
  27. Atoms interact with eachother because...
    Their outermost shell is not completely full
  28. Polar covalent bonding is refered as
    unequal sharing
  29. amphipathic molecules
    a molecule that contains both polar and nonpolar regions.
  30. When hydrogen ions leave a water molecule
    • 1. Leads to the formation of hydroxide ions
    • 2. H20>>>H+ + OH-
    • 3.Hydrogen ion may bond to a water molecule forming hydronium ion H3O+
  31. Acids
    1. Dissolve in water and release hydrogen ions (H+)
  32. Bases
    1. Dissolve in water and release hydroxide ions (OH-)
  33. pH scale
    • 1. Measure of hydrogen ion concentration
    • 2. Below 7 is acidic, higher is basic
  34. Human blood has a ph of
    7.4
  35. a pH 7 means the concentration of hydrogen ions is 1x10^-7M of water
  36. Isopleth Map
    • 1. Shows the variations of acid rain in different regions of the
    • US
    • 2. Pollutants react and form sulfuric acid
    • 3. East Coast has most acidity
  37. Atoms and medicine: Thyroid gland
    • -Produces thyroid hormones
    • -Metabolism
    • -Requires Iodine
    • 1. Hyperthyroidism: Condition in which the thyroid gland makes too much thyroid hormone..excess iodine
    • 2. Treatment:
    • --Radioactive Iodine: By giving a radioactive form of iodine, the thyroid cells which absorb it will be damaged or killed
  38. Atoms and Medicine: Digital Substraction Angiography
    • 1. Diagnosis problems with circulation
    • 2. Give patient Xenon, flows through lungs, and travels to blood, binds to red blood cless
    • 3. Enhances resoltuion of blood vessels, prevent heart attacks
  39. Drugs
    • 1. Most drugs are manufactured as salts because they are stable when dry
    • 2. They dissociate easily when dissovled

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