BIO 205 Final Digestive System

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  1. Organs of Food Processing
    • Alimentary canal (mouth tube to anal canal)
    • Accessory Organs
  2. Food Processing (IDAE)
    • Indigestion
    • Digestion
    • Absorption
    • Elimination
  3. Types of Digestion
    • Mechanical: taking big piece of food and making it smaller
    • Chemical: increase surface area of food
  4. Wall of Digestive Tract
    • Mucosa
    • Submucosa
    • Muscularis
    • Serosa
  5. Muscles of Digestive Tract
    • Longitudinal layer (contracts and moves along faster)
    • Cicular layer of smooth muscle (contracts and makes opening smaller)
  6. Mouth and Tongue: Structures
    • Hard Palate
    • Soft palate
    • Uvula
    • Tonsils
    • Papillae
    • Parotid gland
    • submandibular gland
    • Sublingual gland
    • Saliva
  7. Salivary Amylase
    starts carbohydrate digestion
  8. Adult Teeth
    • 8 incisors
    • 4 canine
    • 8 pre-molars
    • 12 molars

    32 teeth
  9. How many teeth do children have?
  10. Teeth Structure
    • Crown: exposed part
    • Root: covered by gum
    • Enamel: Covers crown
    • Dentin: underneath enamel and covers whole root
    • Pulp cavity: contains nerve tissue and etc.
    • Root canal: getting rid of the nerve to the tooth (no more pain)
    • Gum: ..
  11. Gingivitis
    Bacteria leading to tooth decay
  12. Mouth, Teeth, and Tongue: Function

    • Mechanical
    • Chemical (salivary amylase)
  13. Pharynx and Esophagus: Structure
    • Stomach is columnar epithelium
    • Esophagus is stratified squamous
    • Gastroesophageal sphincter: keeps gasto contents from coming up
  14. Sphincter
    When muscle is thick and controls food from passing from one of the other from coming back up
  15. Pharynx and Esophagus: Function
    • Swallowing (contrats and relaxes)
    • -Can't control swallowing because upper third of esophagus is skeletal muscle
    • -Bottom third is smooth
    • -Middle third is changing from skeletal to smooth
    • Peristalsis (esophagus, stomach, small & large intestine)
  16. GERD
    • Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Stomach contents (food or liquid) leak backwards from the stomach into the esophagus
    • Burns lower part of esophargus
  17. Stomach: Structure
    • Outer longtudinal muscle
    • Inner circular muscle
    • Innermost oblique muscle
    • Rugae: holds food/drinks when you consume too much
    • Pyloric Sphincter
    • Gastric pit
    • Gastric Gland
  18. Pyloric Sphincter
    • Keeps contents in stomach so gastric liquid can act on food and muscle layers
    • Only teaspoon comes out (2-6 hours to empty stomach)
  19. Gastric Hormones
    • Carries through bloodstreams
    • Produced by stomach
    • Closest to the surface of stomach
    • Mucosa protected by layer of mucous

    • Deep to the mucosa:
    • Pepsinogen aka pepsin
    • HCl [hydrochloric acid] (pacman): acts on pepsinogen and makes pepsin
    • pepsin: protease (enzyme that works on protein - breaks down protein)
  20. Stomach Functions:
    • Store food
    • Mechanical digestion
    • Start protein digestion
    • Chyme
    • NO Nutrient absorption (however...) alcohol can be fat soluble to cross stomach
    • Slow emptying
  21. Small Intestine: Stuctures
    • Duodenum
    • Jejunum
    • Ileum
    • Peristalsis moves things along
    • Villi --> microvilli (increases surface area)
  22. Small Intestine Surface Area
    • Intestine size of tennis court
  23. Small Intestine: Enzyme Produces
    • HCl --> secretin (no hydrochloric acid, no secretin)
    • Protein and fat --> CCK
    • Secretin and CCK --> Pancreatic juices
    • CCK --> bile production
    • CCK --> Gallbladder contraction
  24. Small Intestine: Functions
    • Digestion
    • Protein
    • Carbohydrate
    • Fat
    • Villus
    • Lacteal
    • Blood Vessel
    • Absorption
    • Sugars
    • Amino acids
    • Vitamins & minerals
    • Fatty acids (go into lacteal, joins with proteins, and is diluted by the blood)
  25. Lactose Intolerance
    • Lactose is primary sugar found in milk
    • Lactose is broken down with ezyme called lactase
    • Lactose is broken apart and broken into glucose
    • Lactose intolerant can't break them apart
    • If there is no lactase, it cannot absorb
  26. What is the largest organ in the body?
    • Liver
  27. Liver: Microanatomy of a Lobule
    • Blood is going into the liver
    • 20% of blood is oxygenated
    • 80% of blood is venous blood
    • Has cells that look for toxins to detoxify your blood
    • Hepatic portal system brings venous blood with nutrients and possible toxins to drain through the liver for detoxification then veins will drain liver to inferior vena cava for clean blood
  28. Liver: Functions
    • Detoxify blood
    • Storage
    • iron (hemoglobin)
    • fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, and K)
    • B12
    • Glycogen (storage form of glucose)
    • Make new glucose
    • Make proeins, cholesterol, and bile
    • made 24/7
    • stored in gallbladder
  29. Accessory Organ: Gallbladder
    • Common bile duct and pancreatic duct empty into duodenum
    • Bile emulsifies fats
    • Big fat globules become a bunch of little fat globules increasing surface area so chemical (lipase) can digest fats
  30. Accessory Organ: Pancreas
    • Posterior to stomach
    • Exocrine function:
    • means you have a gland and secretion goes into duct instead of the blood
    • going into blood would be endocrine function
    • pancreatic duct and bile get dumped into the duodenum in the same place so they can work togeter, and go through the common bile duct
  31. What are the Accessory Organs?
    • Liver
    • Gallbladder
    • Pancreas
  32. Other Digestive Secretions
    • HCl in duodenum --> secretin produced by duodenum
    • Protein and fat in duodenum --> CCK produced
    • Secretin & CCK stimulate pancreatic juice secretion
    • CCK causes gallbladder to contract
  33. Pancreatic Juice
    • Sodium bicarbonate: neutralizes acid chyme
    • Lipase digest fats --> glycerol & fatty acids
    • Amylase digests carbs --> glucose
    • Trypsin digests proteins --> amino acids

    *Pancreas has to do with food digestion and can't live without it
  34. How long is the large intestine?
    5 feet long
  35. Large intestine: Functions
    • NO nutrient abdorption
    • Absorb water
    • Absord vitamins produced by intestinal bacteria
    • Form feces
    • 3/4 water
    • 1/4 undigested solids and other nutrients
    • Defactaion
  36. Colonic Polyps
    • Overtime, polyps are traumatized with poop and end up becoming cancerous
  37. Diverticulosis
    • The condition of having diverticula in the colon, which are outpocketings of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through weaknesses of muscle layers in the colon wall.

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BIO 205 Final Digestive System
2012-04-23 01:37:22
digestive system bio 205 pal ralejo

BIO 205 Digestive System
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