chapter 14

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lkorkowski
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chapter 14
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2012-04-23 19:29:52
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Microbiology
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  1. a parasite capable of causing disease in a host
    pathogen
  2. any organism that harbors another organism
    host
  3. is an association between 2+ species. means living together
    symbiosis
  4. both members of the association living together benefit from the relationship
    mutualism
  5. one organism, the parsite, benefits from the relationship, whereas the other organism, the host, is harmed by it
    parasitism
  6. an organism that lives in or on, and at the expense of, another organism, the host
    parasite
  7. two species live together in a relationship such that the one benefits and the other one neither benefits or is harmed
    commensalism
  8. situation in which both species harm eachother without either benefitting
    antagonism
  9. microorganisms are present
    contamination
  10. the multiplication of any parasitic organism within or on the host's body
    infection
  11. presence of larger parasites, such as worms or arthropods in or one the body
    infestation
  12. a disturbance in the state of health wherein the body cannot carry out all its normal functions
    disease
  13. the capacity to produce disease
    pathogenicity
  14. refers to the intensity of the disease produced by pathogens, and it varies among different microbial species
    virulence
  15. the rapid transfer of the pathogen through animals of one species susceptible to infection by that pathogen
    animal passage
  16. the weakening of the disease-producing ability of the pathogen
    attenuation
  17. a lab technique in which a pathogen is passed from tis normal host to a new host species and then passed sequentially through many individuals of the new host species
    transposal of virulence
  18. organisms that live on or in the body but do not cause disease
    • normal microflora
    • normal microbiota
  19. comprise microbes that are always present on or in the human body
    resident microflora
  20. microorganisms that can be present under certain conditions in any of the locations where resident microflora are found
    transient microflora
  21. take advantage of particular opportunities to cause disease
    opportunists
  22. what are the 3 conditions that create opportunities for opportunists
    • 1) failure of the host's normal defenses
    • 2) introduction of the organisms into unusual body sites
    • 3) disturbance in the normal microflora
  23. the ability of normal mirobiota to compete with pathogenic organisms and in some instances to effectively combat their growth
    microbial antagonism
  24. what are the 4 Koch's postulates
    • 1) the specific causative agent must be observed in every case of a disease
    • 2) the agent must be isolated from a diseased host and must be grown in pure culture
    • 3) when the agent from the pure culture is inoculated into healthy, but susceptible, experimental hosts, the agent must cause the same disease
    • 4) the agent must be re-isolated from the inoculated diseased experimental host and identified as being identical to the origional specific causative agent
  25. diseases caused by infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and hemlinths
    infectious disease
  26. disease caused by any factor other than infectious agents
    noninfectious diseases
  27. what are the 10 classifications of disease
    • 1) inherited diseases - are caused by errors in genetic info
    • 2) congenital diseases - defects present at birth
    • 3) degenerative diseases - develop in ones body as aging occurs
    • 4) nutritional deficiency diseases - lowers resistance to diseases and contributes to the severity of the infection
    • 5) endocrine diseases - excessive or deficiencies of hormones
    • 6) mental disease - caused by a variety of factors
    • 7) immunologicalo disease - caused by malfunction of the immune system
    • 8) neoplastic diseases - abnormal cell growth that leads to tumors
    • 9) latrogenic diseases - caused by medical procedures
    • 10) idiopathic - unknown cause
  28. infectious disease that can be spread from host to another
    communicable infectious disease
  29. highly communicable
    contagious disease
  30. diseases that can not be spread from host to another
    noncommunicable infectious disease
  31. structural or physiological characteristics that help organisms cause infection and disease
    virulence factors
  32. inanimate object contaminated with an infectious disease
    fomite
  33. attachment to host's cell surface
    adherence
  34. proteins or glycoproteins found on attachment pili and capsules
  35. the growth of microorganisms on epithelial surfaces, such as skin or mucous membranes or other host tissue
    colonization
  36. the ability to invade and grow in host tissue
    invasiveness
  37. spreading factor
    • hyaluronidase
    • (acid breaks apart)
  38. bacterial enzyme that accelerates the coagulation of blood
    coagulase
  39. dissolves blood clots
    streptokinase
  40. any substance that is poisonous to other organisms
    toxin
  41. soluble substances secreted into host tissue
    exotixins
  42. parts of the cell wall and are released into host tissue from gram negative bacteria, often when the bacteria die or divide
    endotoxins
  43. the action of these exotoxins is to lyse RBCs
    hemolysins
  44. hemolyze blood cells, partially breakdown hemoblobin, produce a greenish ring around colonies
    hemolysins
  45. hemolyze blood cells, completely breakdown hemoblobin, produce a clear ring around colonies
    beta-hemolysins
  46. exotoxins produced by many bacteria, including the streptococci and staphlococci. these damage or destroy certian kinds of WBCs
    leukocidins
  47. interferes with the ability of WBCs to engulf microorganisms that secrete exotoxins
    leukostatin
  48. the spreading of exotoxins by blood from the site of infection
    toxemia
  49. diseases that result from ingestion of toxin
    intoxications
  50. exotoxins that act on tissues of the nervous system to prevent muscle relaxation
    neurotoxins
  51. exotoxins that act on tissues of the gut
    enterotoxins
  52. toxin that has lost its ability to cause harm but that retains antigenicity
    toxoid
  53. the visible effect viruse have on cells
    cytopathic effect CPE
  54. occurs when viruses enter a cell and produce and infectious offspring
    productive infection
  55. occurs when viruses enter a cell but are unable to express all their genes to make infectious offspring
    abortive infection
  56. an infection typical of herpesviruses in which an infection in childhood that is brought under control later in life reactivates
    latent viral infection
  57. the continued production of viruses within the host over many months or years
    persistant viral infection
  58. a characterisitc of a disease that can be observed by examining the patient
    sign
  59. a characteristic of a disease that can be observed or felt only by the patient
    symptoms
  60. is a combination of signs and symptoms that occur together and are indicative of a particular disease or abnormal condition
    syndrome
  61. an increase in the number of WBCs circulating in the body
    leukocytosis
  62. the aftereffect of a disease; after recovering from it
    sequela
  63. disease in which symptoms develop rapidly and that runs its course quickly
    acute disease
  64. disease in which symptoms develop slowly and disease is slow to disapper
    chronic disease
  65. disease with symptoms intermediate between acute and chronic
    subacute disease
  66. disease in which symptoms appear and/or reappear long after infection
    latent disease
  67. infection confined to a small region of the body, such as a boil or bladder infection
    local infection
  68. infection in a confined region from which pathogens travel to other regions of the body, such as an abscessed tooth or infected sinus
    focal infection
  69. infection in which the pathogen is spread throughout the body, often by traveling through blood or lymph
    systemic infection
  70. presence and multiplication of pathogens in blood
    septicemia
  71. presence but not multiplication of bacteria in blood
    bacteremia
  72. presence but not multiplication of viruses in blood
    viremia
  73. presence of toxins in blood
    toxemia
  74. presence of metabolic products of saprophytes in blood
    sapremia
  75. infection in a previously healthy person
    primary infection
  76. infection that immediately follows a primary infection
    secondary infection
  77. secondary infection that is usually caused by an agent resistant to the treatment for the primary infections
    superinfection
  78. infection caused by 2+ pathogens
    mixed infection
  79. infection that fails to produce full set of signs and symptoms
    inapparent infection
  80. the time between infection and the appearance of signs and symptoms
    incubation period
  81. the short period during which nonspecific, often mild, symptoms such as malaise and headache sometimes appear
    prodromal phase
  82. is a symptom indicating the onset of a disease
    prodrome
  83. the period in which the individual experiences the typical signs and symptoms of the disease
    invasive phase
  84. when signs and symptoms reach their greatest intensity
    acme
  85. sudden and severe
    fulminating
  86. act on a center in the hypothalamus "the bodys thermostat"
    pyrogens
  87. the period of the illness during which the host defenses and teh effects of treatment finally overcome the pathogen
    decline phase
  88. during this period tissues are repaired, healing takes place, and the body regains strength and recovers.
    convalescence period
  89. what are the 4 factors that make eradication difficult
    • 1) available medical expertise is not always applied
    • 2) infectious agents are often highly adaptable
    • 3) previously known or rare diseases become significant as a result of changes in human activities and/or social conditions
    • 4) immigration and international travel and commerce introduce new of reoccurant strains of the pathogen
  90. an association between 2 or more species
    symbiosis
  91. both members of the association benefit from the relationship
    mutualism
  92. only one organism benefits from the relationship
    parasitism
  93. any organism that harbors another organism
    host
  94. a parasite capable of causing disease in a host
    pathogen
  95. two species living together in a relationship such that one benefits and the other neither benefits nor is harmed
    commensalisms
  96. true or false
    Contamination, infection, and diseases are a sequence of conditions in which the severity of the effects microorganisms have on the host increases.
    true
  97. transposal of virulence and attenuation are two techniques that are useful in the production of:
    A) vaccines
    B) pathogenic organisms
    C) virulent organisms
    D) antiseptics
    E) antibiotics
    A) vaccines
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  98. endotoxins are associated with gram-negative bacteria and are a part of their cell _ and are released when the cel _/_ while exotoxins are produced and released by gram-positive and some gram-negative bacteria and are called _ if they affect the nervous system and_ if they effect the digestive system.
    • walls
    • divides/dies
    • neurotoxins
    • enterotoxins
  99. the best descriptive term for resident microflora is:
    A) parasites
    B) commensals
    C) pathogens
    D) mutualists
    E) infestations
    B) commensals
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  100. which of the following is not true about the transient microflora:
    A) they are present under the same exact conditions, in any of the locations where resident microflora are found
    B) they occur on skin when it is warmer and more moist than usual
    C) pathogens can be transient microflora
    D) they occur in mucous membranes when greater than normal qualities of nutrients are available
    c) they persist only as long as the necessary conditions are met.
    A) they are present under the same exact conditions, in any of the locations where resident microflora are found
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  101. which of the following diseases can be directly caused by microorganisms:
    A) inherited disease
    B) congenital disease
    C) neoplastic disease
    D) a and b
    E) b and c
    D) b and c
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  102. an iatrogentic disease is a patient caused by Staphylococcus aureus - contaminated surgical instruments would be known as a:
    A) transient contamination
    B) subclinical infection
    C) zoonotic invasion
    D) nosocomial infection
    E) invasive malignancy
    D) nosocomial infection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  103. all of the following are virulence factors except:
    A) enxymes that aid in the evasion of host defenses
    B) toxins
    C) chloroplasts
    D) adhesive pili
    E) enzymes that aid in direct protection of microbe from host defenses
    C) chloroplasts
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  104. which of the following is not true about the virulence factor coagulase:
    A) it keeps microorganisms from spreading
    B) it incresses the likelihood of exposure to host immune defenses
    C) streptokinase can counteract the effects of coagulase
    D) it accelerates coagulation or clotting of host blood
    e) all of the above are true
    B) it increases the likelihood of exposure to host immune defenses
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  105. true or false
    a communicable disease cannot be spread from host to host and may be acquired from soil, eater, or contaminates food while a noncommunicable disease is a contagous disease that can be spread from one host to another.
    false
  106. an example of a latent disease is:
    A) cold/flu
    B) leprosy
    C) tuberculosis
    D) gum disease
    E) chickenpox/shingles
    E) chickenpox/shingles
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  107. which of the following would be a septicemia
    A) systemic infection
    B) focal infection
    C) bacteremia
    D) local infection
    E) viremia
    A) sytemic infection
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  108. the presence of a few, non-multiplying, bacteria in the blood is termed:
    A) bacteremia
    B) toxemia
    C) viremia
    D) secondary infection
    E) septicemia
    A) bacteremia
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  109. viral damage to cells produce observable changes called the _ effect. viral inceftions that lead to the release of viral progeny are known as _ infections while those resulting in no infectious progeny are known as _ infections.
    • cytopathic
    • productive
    • abortive
  110. a positice antibody test for HIV would be a _ of disease:
    A) symptom
    B) sign
    C) sequela
    D) syndrome
    E) virulence
    B) sign
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  111. which of the following is not one of Koch's postulates
    A) grow the organism in pure culture
    B) cultivate the microbe in the lab
    C) produce a vaccine
    D) isolate the causative agent of a disease
    E) inoculate a test animal to observe the disease
    C) produce a vaccine
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  112. a lab bench with bacteria spilled on it could be correctly reffered to as:
    A) contaminated
    B) inflamed
    C) infested
    D) diseased
    E) infected
    D) contaminated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  113. a _ is an obserable effect of a disease while a _ is an effect of a disease felt only by the infected person. a _ is a group of signs and symptoms that occur together.
    • sign
    • symptom
    • syndrome
  114. which one of the following is mismatched:
    a) abortive infection - infection leands to abortion in preganat individuals
    b) inapparent infection - too few organisms present to produce typical signs and symptoms
    c) local infection - confined to specific area of body
    d) mixed infection - more than one type of organism is responsible for disease process
    e) productive infection - virus is produced from an infected cell
    • a) abortive infection
    • is a viral infection in which vurises enter a cell but are unable to express all of their genes to make infectious progeny
  115. which of the following stages are mismatched:
    a) convalescent period - tissue damage is repaired and patient strength returns
    b) decline phase - host defenses are overwhelmed by pathogen
    c) incubation period - time between infection and onset of signs and symptoms
    d) invasive phase - individuals experience typical signs and symptoms of disease
    e) prodromal phase - pathogens begin tissue invasion; marked by non-specific symptoms
    • b) decline phase
    • the period of time during which the host defenses finally overcome the pathogen and symptoms begin to subside
  116. the presence of Staphylococci on healthy skin helps to prevent pathogenic bacteria from colonizing and causing disease is an example of:
    A) antibiosis
    B) microbial antagonism
    C) opportunism
    D) pathogenicity
    E) virulence
    B) microbial antagonism
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  117. _ are soluble substances secreted from bacteria into host tissue, whereas _ are part of the bacterial cell wall and enter host tissue during division or after cell death.
    exotoxins, endotoxins
  118. bolulinum toxin is an example of a:
    A) lipopolysaccharide
    B) carbohydrate
    C) hemolysin
    D) exotoxin
    E) endotoxin
    D) exotoxin
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  119. true or false
    latent viral infections are brought under control by the use of drugs
    false
  120. what are the stages of a disease in order from start to finish
    • incubation period
    • prodromal phase
    • invasive phase
    • acme
    • decline phase
    • convalescence phase

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