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Name 6 kinds of ectoparasites.
List 9 drugs or categories of drugs used against ectoparasites.
- organophosphate and carbamates
- pyrethrins and pyrethroids
- insect growth regulators
- insect repellants
Are organophosphates (O-P) commonly used against parasites in animals? Why or why not?
no - they are much less safe than newr drugs
Why do LVTs have to learn about organophosphates?
because O-P are still available for agricultural, lawn, and garden purposes, and animals can be exposed to and poisoned by these O-P
How do organophosphates work?
by binding to and inactivating acetylcholinesterase, causing too much acetylcholine to be present, causing too much parasympathetic stimulation.
Carbamates are most similar to what other type of antiparasitic drug?
Name the 2 types of parasympathetic receptors.
muscarinic and nicotinic
Certain organophosphates stimulate mainly muscarinic receptors. What clinical signs of toxicity do these drugs cause?
SLUDDE - salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, dyspnea, emesis. also miosis, bradycardia, seizures
How can excessive miscarinic stimulation cause dyspnea?
by causing bronchoconstricction and increased respiratory secretions
Certain organophosphates stimulate mainly nicotinic receptors. What clinical signs of toxicity do these drugs cause?
muscle tremors, shaking, ataxia, paralysis
How is organophosphate toxicity treated?
- physically remove organophosphate from patient - bath, emesis, etc.
- give antidotes - atropine, pralidoxime (2 - PAM)
List the 2 antidotes to organophosphate toxicity, and how they work.
- atropine - blocks muscarinic receptors
- pralidoxime (2-PAM) - breaks O-P-acetylcholinesterase bond
Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are derived from what flowers?
chrysanthemums (not "mums", you sissies!!)
Are pyrethrins natural or synthetic?
Are pyrethroids natural or synthetic?
Are pyrethrins and pyrethroids commonly prescribed and dispensed out of veterinary practices? Explain.
no - we have other drugs that work better
Where do clients get pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
OTC - over the counter, department stores, pet shops, etc.
Why do LVTs have to learn about pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
because we get to deal with the overdoses and misuses of these products
How safe are pyrethrins and pyrethroids to insects?
not safe, kills them we hope. which is the point. selective toxicity for insects.
How safe are pyrethrins and pyrethroids to mammals?
safe - take very high dose to harm mammals.
How safe are pyrethrins and pyrethroids to fish?
toxic to fish. do not let contaminated water drain into pond or river
How well do pyrethrins, by themselves, kill insects?
not very. have a quick "knock-down" effect, but the insect may recover
What can be done to make pyrethrins more effective insecticides?
add a synergist to them
What is a synergist?
a compound added to a drug to make it more effective
Name a synergist commonly added to pyrethrins.
Can piperonyl butoxide cause any problems? Explain.
yes - if a cat licks it off of its fur, it can cause toxicity - tremors, ataxia, lethargy
What are pyrethroids?
synthetic, modified pyrethrins
Why were pyrethroids developed?
to enhance the killing effects
What is a common ending on pyrethroid drug names?
Do pyrethroids need to have a synergist added to them.
List 4 specific pyrethroid drugs.
allethrin (Mycodex), resmethrin, permethrin (Defend ExSpot), fenvalerate
Name the pyrethroid drug that should be avoided in cats.
permethrin (Defend ExSpot) - cats do not metabolize it well
Amitraz belongs in the same category as certain sedatives - name the category, and name the sedative - name the category and name the sedatives.
alpha 2 agonist - like xylazine - Rompun and medethomidine - Domitor
Can amitraz be reversed with alpha 2 agonists? Name some.
yes - yohimbine - Yobine. and atipamezole - Antisedan
Amitraz is also related to certain behavior-modifying drugs. Name this category of drug, and name a drug in this category.
- MAO inhibitors - monoamine oxidase inhibitors
- selegiline hydrochloride (deprenyl) - Anipryl
List the trade names of 2 amitraz products, and state what they are used for.
- Preventic Tick collar - for dogs, quite effective
- Mitaban - for demodectic mange, quite effective
Should owners take precautions to make sure that children and pets do not ingest part of a Preventic Tick collar?
yes - toxic if ingested
Should all canines with demodectic mange be treated with Mitaban? Explain.
no - pups under 4 months of age should not be treated. safety not established, and most young pups with localized demodectic mange clear up on their own
List some side effects associated with amitraz-Mitaban
hypothermia, pruritus, sedation
List the macrolide drugs and their trade names that are used for treating ectoparasites.
- milbemycin oxime (MilbeMite)
- selamectin (revolution)
- ivermectin (Acarexx, Ivomec)
- moxidectin (Advantage Multi for dogs and cats)
Milbemycin oxime-MilbeMite (also Interceptor) is used to treat what type of external parasite?
ear mites in cats
Ivermectin - Acarexx is used to treat what type of external parasite?
ear mites in cats
Ivermectin-Ivomec is used, off label, to treat what type of external parasite?
sarcoptic mange in dogs
Moxidectin - Advantage Multi for dogs (and for cats) is used to treat what parasites?
- dogs - fleas, heartworm preventative, hooks, rounds, whips
- cats - fleas, heartworm preventative, hooks, rounds, ear mites
What external parasite does imidacloprid treat?
List 4 trade names of imidacloprid.
Advantage, K9 Advantix, Advantage Multi for Dogs, Advantage Multi for Cats
How are the imidacloprid - Advantage products applied? How often?
- topically - spot on skin between shoulder blades of dogs, back of neck of cats
- once a month
Can K9 Advantix be used on cats? Explain.
no - contains permethrin - cats do not metabolize permethrin well
What external parasites does fipronil - Frontline Top Spot treat?
fleas and ticks
How is fipronil - Frontline applied? How often?
- topically - spot between shoulder blades
- once a month
What external parasite does nitenpyram - Capstar treat?
How is nitenpyram - Capstar administered? How often?
- oral tablet
- can be given daily
List the 2 categories of IGRs - insect growth regulators.
- IDIs - insect development inhibitors
- JHMs - juvenile hormone mimics
List 4 specific IGR drugs.
- methoprene (Precor, Siphotrol, Oxitrol)
- fenoxycarb (Ectogard, Impass)
- pyriproxyfen (Nylar)
- lufenuron (Program tablets, Program 6 Month Injectable for Cats, Sentinel)
How does lufenuron (Program, Sentinel) work?
interferes with chitin development, prevents flea eggs from hatching. "flea birth control"
What non-parasitic condition may lufenuron be used to treat?
List 2 insect repellants and their trade names, if any.
- Butox PPG - butoxypolypropylene glycol
- diethyltoluamide - DEET (OFF - human product, Hartz Blockade)