Antiparasitics 3

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Antiparasitics 3
2012-04-22 22:00:13

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  1. Name 6 kinds of ectoparasites.
    • fleas
    • ticks
    • mites
    • flies
    • grubs
    • lice
  2. List 9 drugs or categories of drugs used against ectoparasites.
    • organophosphate and carbamates
    • pyrethrins and pyrethroids
    • amitraz
    • macrolides
    • imidacloprid
    • fipronil
    • nitenpyram
    • insect growth regulators
    • insect repellants
  3. Are organophosphates (O-P) commonly used against parasites in animals? Why or why not?
    no - they are much less safe than newr drugs
  4. Why do LVTs have to learn about organophosphates?
    because O-P are still available for agricultural, lawn, and garden purposes, and animals can be exposed to and poisoned by these O-P
  5. How do organophosphates work?
    by binding to and inactivating acetylcholinesterase, causing too much acetylcholine to be present, causing too much parasympathetic stimulation.
  6. Carbamates are most similar to what other type of antiparasitic drug?
  7. Name the 2 types of parasympathetic receptors.
    muscarinic and nicotinic
  8. Certain organophosphates stimulate mainly muscarinic receptors. What clinical signs of toxicity do these drugs cause?
    SLUDDE - salivation, lacrimation, urination, diarrhea, dyspnea, emesis. also miosis, bradycardia, seizures
  9. How can excessive miscarinic stimulation cause dyspnea?
    by causing bronchoconstricction and increased respiratory secretions
  10. Certain organophosphates stimulate mainly nicotinic receptors. What clinical signs of toxicity do these drugs cause?
    muscle tremors, shaking, ataxia, paralysis
  11. How is organophosphate toxicity treated?
    • physically remove organophosphate from patient - bath, emesis, etc.
    • give antidotes - atropine, pralidoxime (2 - PAM)
  12. List the 2 antidotes to organophosphate toxicity, and how they work.
    • atropine - blocks muscarinic receptors
    • pralidoxime (2-PAM) - breaks O-P-acetylcholinesterase bond
  13. Pyrethrins and pyrethroids are derived from what flowers?
    chrysanthemums (not "mums", you sissies!!)
  14. Are pyrethrins natural or synthetic?
  15. Are pyrethroids natural or synthetic?
  16. Are pyrethrins and pyrethroids commonly prescribed and dispensed out of veterinary practices? Explain.
    no - we have other drugs that work better
  17. Where do clients get pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
    OTC - over the counter, department stores, pet shops, etc.
  18. Why do LVTs have to learn about pyrethrins and pyrethroids?
    because we get to deal with the overdoses and misuses of these products
  19. How safe are pyrethrins and pyrethroids to insects?
    not safe, kills them we hope. which is the point. selective toxicity for insects.
  20. How safe are pyrethrins and pyrethroids to mammals?
    safe - take very high dose to harm mammals.
  21. How safe are pyrethrins and pyrethroids to fish?
    toxic to fish. do not let contaminated water drain into pond or river
  22. How well do pyrethrins, by themselves, kill insects?
    not very. have a quick "knock-down" effect, but the insect may recover
  23. What can be done to make pyrethrins more effective insecticides?
    add a synergist to them
  24. What is a synergist?
    a compound added to a drug to make it more effective
  25. Name a synergist commonly added to pyrethrins.
    piperonyl butoxide
  26. Can piperonyl butoxide cause any problems? Explain.
    yes - if a cat licks it off of its fur, it can cause toxicity - tremors, ataxia, lethargy
  27. What are pyrethroids?
    synthetic, modified pyrethrins
  28. Why were pyrethroids developed?
    to enhance the killing effects
  29. What is a common ending on pyrethroid drug names?
  30. Do pyrethroids need to have a synergist added to them.
    usually not
  31. List 4 specific pyrethroid drugs.
    allethrin (Mycodex), resmethrin, permethrin (Defend ExSpot), fenvalerate
  32. Name the pyrethroid drug that should be avoided in cats.
    permethrin (Defend ExSpot) - cats do not metabolize it well
  33. Amitraz belongs in the same category as certain sedatives - name the category, and name the sedative - name the category and name the sedatives.
    alpha 2 agonist - like xylazine - Rompun and medethomidine - Domitor
  34. Can amitraz be reversed with alpha 2 agonists? Name some.
    yes - yohimbine - Yobine. and atipamezole - Antisedan
  35. Amitraz is also related to certain behavior-modifying drugs. Name this category of drug, and name a drug in this category.
    • MAO inhibitors - monoamine oxidase inhibitors
    • selegiline hydrochloride (deprenyl) - Anipryl
  36. List the trade names of 2 amitraz products, and state what they are used for.
    • Preventic Tick collar - for dogs, quite effective
    • Mitaban - for demodectic mange, quite effective
  37. Should owners take precautions to make sure that children and pets do not ingest part of a Preventic Tick collar?
    yes - toxic if ingested
  38. Should all canines with demodectic mange be treated with Mitaban? Explain.
    no - pups under 4 months of age should not be treated. safety not established, and most young pups with localized demodectic mange clear up on their own
  39. List some side effects associated with amitraz-Mitaban
    hypothermia, pruritus, sedation
  40. List the macrolide drugs and their trade names that are used for treating ectoparasites.
    • milbemycin oxime (MilbeMite)
    • selamectin (revolution)
    • ivermectin (Acarexx, Ivomec)
    • moxidectin (Advantage Multi for dogs and cats)
  41. Milbemycin oxime-MilbeMite (also Interceptor) is used to treat what type of external parasite?
    ear mites in cats
  42. Ivermectin - Acarexx is used to treat what type of external parasite?
    ear mites in cats
  43. Ivermectin-Ivomec is used, off label, to treat what type of external parasite?
    sarcoptic mange in dogs
  44. Moxidectin - Advantage Multi for dogs (and for cats) is used to treat what parasites?
    • dogs - fleas, heartworm preventative, hooks, rounds, whips
    • cats - fleas, heartworm preventative, hooks, rounds, ear mites
  45. What external parasite does imidacloprid treat?
  46. List 4 trade names of imidacloprid.
    Advantage, K9 Advantix, Advantage Multi for Dogs, Advantage Multi for Cats
  47. How are the imidacloprid - Advantage products applied? How often?
    • topically - spot on skin between shoulder blades of dogs, back of neck of cats
    • once a month
  48. Can K9 Advantix be used on cats? Explain.
    no - contains permethrin - cats do not metabolize permethrin well
  49. What external parasites does fipronil - Frontline Top Spot treat?
    fleas and ticks
  50. How is fipronil - Frontline applied? How often?
    • topically - spot between shoulder blades
    • once a month
  51. What external parasite does nitenpyram - Capstar treat?
  52. How is nitenpyram - Capstar administered? How often?
    • oral tablet
    • can be given daily
  53. List the 2 categories of IGRs - insect growth regulators.
    • IDIs - insect development inhibitors
    • JHMs - juvenile hormone mimics
  54. List 4 specific IGR drugs.
    • methoprene (Precor, Siphotrol, Oxitrol)
    • fenoxycarb (Ectogard, Impass)
    • pyriproxyfen (Nylar)
    • lufenuron (Program tablets, Program 6 Month Injectable for Cats, Sentinel)
  55. How does lufenuron (Program, Sentinel) work?
    interferes with chitin development, prevents flea eggs from hatching. "flea birth control"
  56. What non-parasitic condition may lufenuron be used to treat?
  57. List 2 insect repellants and their trade names, if any.
    • Butox PPG - butoxypolypropylene glycol
    • diethyltoluamide - DEET (OFF - human product, Hartz Blockade)