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Absorption is the...
Passage of substances across and into tissues (e.g., intestinal and parenteral absorption).
A severe response to medication. For example, a client may become comatose when a drug is ingested.
Reactions characterized by sudden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema, of the pharynx and larynx, and severe wheezing and shortness of breath.
Change that occurs under the influence of enzymes that detoxify, degrade, and remove biologically active chemicals.
Concentration: Substance, particularly liquid, that has been strengthened and reduced in volume through evaporation or other means.
Substance, particularly liquid, that has been strengthened and reduced in volume through evaporation or other means.
Drugs that affect the mind or behavior, which can be dispensed only with a prescription.
To remove poison or its effects from a client.
Individuals sensitivities to drug effects; caused by inherited or other bodily constitution factors.
Infusions: Introduction of a substance such as a fluid, drug, electrolyte or nutrient into a vien by means of gravity flow.
Introduction of a substance such as a fluid, drug, electrolyte or nutrient into a vien by means of gravity flow.
To breath or draw in with a breath.
Procedure in which a fluid is slowly introduced into a cavity or passage of the body (e.g. rectum) and allowed to remain for a specific amount of time before being withdrawn or drained.
Process of washing out a body cavity or wounded area with a stream of fluid.
comparison of two or more medication lists to ensure that the nurse is aware of all medication perscribed for a client.
Metered dose inhalers:
Inhaler designed to produce local effects such as bronchodilation.
Drug substance, either derived from opium or produced synthetically, that alters perception of pain and that with repeated use may reult in physicla and psychological dependence.
The highest level e.g. peak serum concentration.
Study of how drugs enter the body, reach their site of action, are metabolized, and exit from the body.
Serum half life:
Time needed for excretion processes to lower the serum drug concentration by half.
When two drugs act synergistically, the effect of the two combined is greater than the effect that would be expected if the individual effects of the two drugs acting alone were added together.
List the required information, other than the client’s full name, that identifies a physician’s medication order as complete.
The medication, unit of measure for dosage, the frequency, route, signature, date.
what are the five plus five rights
route, client, time, medication, dosage, assessment, documentation, education, evaluation and the clients right to refuse.
what dosage forms have a very high potential hepatic first pass effect?
what two dosage forms by pass the hepatic first pass effect?
the parenteral and the topical.
what are topical routes?
aerosols, ointments, creams, pastes, powders, solutions, foams, gels, trandermal patches, and inhalers.
What are parenteral routes?
injectable forms, solutions, suspensions, emulsions, powders for reconstition.
What are enteral routes?
tablets, capsules, pill, time-released capsules, sublingual or buccal tablets, eliers, suspensions syrups, tiime-released tablets, emulsions, solutions, losenges or troches, rectal suppositories.
what are the four phases of pharmocokinetics in order and any alternative names?
drugs that are fat soluble pass rapidly through the GI membrane
Water soluble drugs need a carrier such as an enzyme or protien
true or false
what factors can affect drug absorption?
blood flow, pain, stress, hunger, fasting, food, and pH.
what is bioavailibility?
the percentage of an administered drug that reaches system circulation
how much bioavalibility does the IV route have?
how much bioavailability does the oral route have?
less than 100 percent usually between 20-40%
What is the main protien in the binding effect used by the body?`
what is half life?
the time it takes one half of the drug concentration to be eliminated
what is a short half life?
what are route of elimination?
kidneys, bile, feces, saliva, sweat, and breast milk. Urine.
What does pharmacodynamics mean?
the study of drug concentration and its effects on the body.
what is dose response?
the relationship between the miniaml vs maximal amount of drug required to to produce the desired response.
What is onset?
the time it takes to reach the minimum effective concentration
what is peak action?
occurs when the drug reaches its highest blood concentration
what is duration of action?
the lenght of time the drug has a pharmocological effect.
what is a loading dose?
dose given to achieve an immediate effect
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