Kidney part two

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Kidney part two
2012-04-25 19:25:57
Lecture test four

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  1. Kidney stones
    Renal calculi
  2. Inflammation of the urethra
  3. Inflammation of the urinary bladder
  4. inflammation of the nephrons in the kidneys
  5. inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys
  6. the presence of an excess of serum proteins in the urine
  7. _____ means swelling caused by fluid in your body's tissues
  8. _____ measures the amount of nitrogen in your blood that comes from the waste product urea
    BUN test blood urea nitrogen test
  9. What is responsible for urine production?
  10. What 4 things does the renal tubule consist of?
    • Bowmans capsule
    • proximal convoluted tubule
    • loop of henle
    • distal convoluted tubule
  11. Approx what percent of cardiac output is filtered through the kidney each minute?
  12. What 2 things does the renal corpuscle consist of?
    • Glomerulus
    • Bowmans capsule
  13. What feeds the glomerulus?
    Afferent arterioles
  14. Where does the production of protein free filtrate take place?
  15. The glomerulus works (passive/active) and work under (high/low) pressure.
    • Passive
    • low
  16. Approx. _____ml/minute of blood is filtered through kidneys. _____% cardiac output.
    • 1200
    • 20%
  17. _____ml per minute of filtrate is produced in the glomerulus, this is called the _____.
    • 125 ml
    • Glomerular filtratration rate
  18. Reabsorption of filtrate takes place in the _____.
  19. The endothelium of the glomerulus has what type of epithelium?
  20. What does the inner layer of the bowmans capsule consist of? and what is their main funtion?
    • Podocytes
    • filtration through the slits
  21. Afferent arterioles come from _____ arteries
  22. Efferent arteioles go to _____ capillaries
  23. Afferent or efferent:
    Does not get filtered
  24. What is the funtion of the podocytes?
    Filtration of big particles through slits.
  25. Osmosis concentration goes from _____ to _____.
    High to low
  26. What is the glomerular filtration pressure?
    10mm Hg
  27. What are the 2 things that OPPOSES the outward Hydrostatic pressure? and how much pressure does it oppose?
    • Osmotic pressure of blood 30 mm Hg
    • Glomerular capsule fluid pressure 15 mm Hg
  28. What promotes and outward flow against opposing pressure during glomerular filtration and how much pressure does it promote?
    Glomerular hydrostatic pressure 55 mm Hg
  29. The collecting duct dumps into _____.
    Minor calyx
  30. Major calyx dumps into _____.
  31. The peritubular capillaries in the juxtamedullary nephrons go to _____ then go to _____.
    • Vasa recta
    • veins
  32. Specialized peritubular capillaries around loop of henle used for urine concentration.
    Vasa recta
  33. Fluid loss
  34. where does the reabsorption of Na, K and glucose take place and what kind of transport does it require
    • Proximal convoluted tubule and loop of henle
    • active transport ( requires energy )
  35. Where does reabsorption of Cl take place by diffusion?
    Proximal convoluted tubule and loop of henle
  36. What happens in reabsorption?
    Secretions go out to the peritubular capillaries
  37. What happens in secretions?
    Fluid goes into tubules
  38. Obligatory water reabsorption by osmosis happens where?
    Proximal convoluted tubule and loop of henle
  39. Secreations by certain drugs by active transport happens in ?
    Proximal convoluted tubule and loop of henle
  40. Secretions of hydrogen ions including H and K take place in ?
    Distal convoluted tubule
  41. Where does reabsorption of sodium take place by active transport?
    Distal convoluted tubule
  42. _____ controls the reabsorption of water
    anti diuretic
  43. reabsorption of water by osmosis takes place in?
    Collecting tubules
  44. What is the cuff of smooth muscle around afferent arteriole and what is its function?
    • juxtaglomerular cells
    • releasis renin when b/p is low
  45. _____ Is sensitive to decreased concentration of Na ( decreased B/P)
    Macula densa
  46. What releases renin into blood stream?
    Juxtamedullary apparatus
  47. What are 2 ways renin is released into blood stream? what type of cells is it sensed by and where is it located?
    • Pressure receptors- juxtamedullary cells of afferent arteriole
    • Chemoreceptos- macula densa in distal convoluted tubule
  48. the chemoreceptors or macula densa respond to what ?
    Decreased sodium
  49. Where is renin made?
  50. renin is released in blood in response to ?
    low blood pressure
  51. _____ is a plasma protein that gets activated if you have renin.
  52. _____ is a polypeptide that gets activated by angiotensinogen.
    Angiotensin I
  53. what is the enzyme that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II?
    Ace enzyme angiotension converting enzyme
  54. _____ is a potent vasoconstrictor.
    Angiotensin II
  55. _____ is a sodium retaining hormone, highers blood pressure.
  56. What are the 2 functions of angiotension II
    • Vasoconstriction
    • stimulation of aldosterone
  57. What do anti diuretics do to blood pressure?
    Increase blood pressure