Exam 4 Review

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Nay0388
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149468
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Exam 4 Review
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2012-05-07 03:08:14
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Chapter 9 and chapter 10
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  1. Name 2 reasons why cells divide.
    • 1. Growth and development
    • 2. Replacement of cells
    • 3. Pass on genetic information
  2. What are two phases of the cell's life cycle?
    Interphase and Cell Division
  3. Which of the two phases does the cell remain in the longest?
    Interphase 70% to 80%
  4. What is the difference between chromatin and chromosomes?
    Chromatin- Unwound relaxed DNA

    Chromosomes- Condensed wound DNA
  5. When would you find DNA in the form of chromatin during the cell cycle?
    Interphase
  6. When would you find DNA in the form of chromosomes during the cell cycle?
    Cell Division
  7. Why does the chromatin condense into chromosomes?
    Easier to divide
  8. What are three subphases of Interphase?
    • G1: This is the first growth phase. The cell synthesizes proteins and produces cytoplasm organisms.
    • S: This is the synthesis phase. The cell grows while it copies its chromosomes.
    • G2: This is the second growth phase. The cell begins the assembly of the spindle.
  9. What happens during S phase of interphase?
    DNA replication
  10. When during the cell cycle are sister chromatids produced?
    S subphase of interphase
  11. Is mitosis sexual or asexual cellular reproduction?
    Sexual
  12. Are the daughter cells identical or unique from the parent cell after mitosis?
    Identical
  13. How many daughter cells are produces during mitosis?
    Two
  14. What is the definition of mitosis?
    Nuclear Division
  15. What is the definition of cytokinesis?
    Division of the cytoplasm
  16. What are the four phases of mitosis (nuclear division) in order?
    PMAT: Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase
  17. What is the function of the centrioles during cell division?
    To guide cell division
  18. During which phase does the nuclear membrane break down and the chromatin condense into chromosomes?
    Prophase
  19. During which stage do the chromosomes line up?
    Metaphase
  20. During which phase are the chromatids pulled apart?
    Anaphase
  21. What cell structure is involved in pulling the chromatids apart?
    Spidle Fibers
  22. During what phase does the nuclear envelope re-form around the pulled apart chromatids?
    Telephase
  23. If you looked under a microscope at a cell during interphase would you see chromosomes? If not, then when would you see chromosomes?
    No they are chromatids/ Prophase
  24. The cell cycle for animal and plant cells are all the same except for the last stage of cell dicision (cytokinesis). What does a place cell form that you wouldnt find in an animal cell?
    Plant Cell- cell plate

    Animal Cell- cleavage furrow
  25. Show animal cell undergoing Mitosis Cell Division
  26. Show animal cell undergoing Mitosis Cell Division (2)
  27. Show plant cell undergoing Mitosis Cell Division
  28. What is the definition of meiosis?
    Produce sex cells (sperm and egg)
  29. What type of cells are produced after meiotic cell division?
    Gametes
  30. Where (in the human body) would meiotic cell division occur?
    ovaries and testes
  31. What does the term "gonad" mean? What are the female gonads? What are the male gonads?
    primary reproductive organs
  32. How many daughter cells are produced by meiosis?
    4
  33. Are those daughter cells identical or unique compared to the parent cell?
    unique
  34. What does "diploid number" of chromosomes mean?
    The number of chromosomes you get from both
  35. What does "haploid number" of chromosomes mean?
    Number of chromosomes from each parent
  36. After mitosis, would the daughter cells be haploid or diploid?
    Diploid
  37. After meiosis, would the daughter cells be haploid and diploid?
    Haploid
  38. What is a gamete?
    Sex Cell
  39. What are two examples of gametes that humans produce?
    Sperm and egg
  40. Does fusion of the haploid gametes produce a diploid or haploid cell?
    Diploid
  41. What is a fertilized egg called?
    Zygote (Diploid)
  42. When during the human life cycle is the diploid number of chromosomes restored?
    During fertilization
  43. How many cell divisions occur during meisois?
    2
  44. What are the four phases of nuclear division during meiosis I?
    Prophase I
  45. What are the four phases of nuclear division during meiosis II?
    PMAT II... Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, Telephase II
  46. What are homologous chromosomes?
    Same traits
  47. How many pairs of homologous chromosomes do humans have?
    23 pairs
  48. What are the activities that occur during Prophase I?
    Crossing over
  49. How are the homologous chromosomes lined up during Metaphase I?
    Side by side
  50. When homologous chromosomes are next to each other (side by side) during Metaphase I, what is that arrangement referred to as?
    Tetrad
  51. What happens to the homologous chromosomes during Anaphase I?
    Pulled apart
  52. How many daughter cells are produced after Meiosis I (the first cell division)?
    2
  53. Are those daughter cells (from Meiosis I) diploid or haplod cells?
    Haploid
  54. What happens to the chromosomes in Metaphase II? At this point, do any of the chromosomes have their complementary homologous?
    Pulled apart (no pairs)
  55. How is Anaphase II similar to Anaphase from Mitosis?
    Sister chromosomes pulled apart
  56. After Telophase II and cytokinesis II, how many daughter cells have been produced?
    4
  57. Are the daughter cells haploid or diploid compared to the original parent cell?
    Haploid
  58. Do any of the daughter cells from meiosis contain the same sequence of DNA?
    NO
  59. Breifly explain "nondisjunction".
    Failed to separate properly
  60. What does "aneuploid" mean?
    Wrong number of chromosomes
  61. What is a "karyotype?"
    A picture of chromosomes
  62. How many sex chromosomes are found in a normal human karyotype?
    2 sex chromosomes (xx or xy)
  63. How many autosomes are found in a normal human karyotype?
    44
  64. Karyotyping can be used to show ___________ chromosomes.

    A. Dominant
    B. The number and shape of
    C. Codominant
    D. Recessive
    B. The number and shape of
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  65. The improper separation of chromosomes during cell division id called _____________

    A. Sex linkage
    B. Pleiotropy
    C. Nondisjunction
    D. Carrier formation
    C. Nondisjunction
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  66. In human ABO blood types the alleles for A and B are said to be _____________ because they are both expressed when a person had Bood Type AB.
    Codominant
  67. A human sperm cell receives autosomes and

    A. A Y chromosome always
    B. Either an X or a Y chromosome
    C. Exactly the same genetic information as a body cell
    D. Both an X and a Y chromosome
    E. An X chromosome always
    B. Either an X or a Y chromosome
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  68. If a person can have just two alleles of a particular gene and it is known that some persons have yet another different alleles of this gene, then this is an example of ___________

    A. Multiple allelism (multiple alleles)
    B. Codominance
    C. Pleiotropy
    D. Incomplete dominance
    A. Multiple allelism (multiple alleles)
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  69. When the expression of a trait is influenced by the action of many sets of genes, the pattern of inheritance is ____________

    A. Polygenic inheritance
    B. Incomplete dominance
    C. Discontinuous variation
    D. Multiple alleles
    E. Complete dominance
    A. Polygenic inheritance
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  70. Codominance occurs when _________________

    A. A heterozygote express an intermediate phenotype
    B. Offspring exhibit several different phentotypic expressions of a single trait
    C. Expression of twodifferent alleles alternates from one generation to the next
    D. Both alleles in a heterozygote are expressed phenotypically in an individual
    e. None of the above
    D. Both alleles in a heterozygote are expressed phenotypically in an individual
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  71. A recessive allele is one

    A. That is not as strong as a dominant allele
    B. Whose effect is masked by a dominant allele
    C. That appears only in a heterozygote
    D. The produces no effect when present in a homozygous condition
    E. That must be lethal in a homozygous condition
    B. Whose effect is masked by a dominant allele
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  72. If in a heterozygous individual, only one allele is expressed in the phenotype, that allele is ___________

    A. Haploid
    B. Normal
    C. Dominant
    D. Potent
    E. Recessive
    C. Dominant
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  73. The ________ of an organism is the genetic makeup (allele combination coding for a trait) of that organism, and then ______ of an organism refers to its physical traits.
    Genotype/ phenotype
  74. In plea plants, the allele for purple flowers (P) is dominant to the allele (p) for white flowers. In a cross between a purple flowered plant and a white flowered plant, all 73 of the offspring plants had purple flowers. Which of the following most likey describes the cross above?

    A. pp x pp
    B. PP x Pp
    C. PP x pp
    D. Pp x Pp
    E. PP x PP
    C. PP x pp
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  75. What are the possible gametes for an individual who has blood type A, genotype Ao? _____________
    A and o
  76. What are the possible gametes for an individual who has blood type B, gentotype Bo? _____________
    B and o
  77. What are the possible gametes for an individual whith blood type o? __________
    o
  78. What are the possible gametes for an individual with bloody type AB? _____________
    A and B
  79. What type of antibodies would be made for a person who has blood type A?
    B
  80. What type of antibodies would be made for a person who has blood type B?
    A
  81. What type of antibodies would be made for a person who has blood type AB?
    None
  82. What type of antibodies would be made for a person who has blood type O?
    A and B
  83. What are the possible blood types for the offspring when a person with blood type O mates with a person with blood type A (which is heterozygous)? Show your work with a punnett square!
    _______
  84. If tall is dominant to short and purple flower is dominant to white flower:

    a. What is the genotype of a homozygous tall plant that is heterozygous for flower color?

    b. What is the genotype of a heterozygous tall plant that has white flowers?
    a. Bb AA

    b. Aa bb
  85. What type of pattern of inheritance is demonstrated when a heterozgote demonstrates a phenotype that is intermediate between alleles? ________________
    Incomplete
  86. What traits are autosomal dominant? What traits are autosomal recessive? What traits are sex linked recessive? Focus on the human disorders.
    • *huntington disease
    • *sickle cell anemia
    • *color blindness
    • *hemophilia
  87. If a trait is autsomal recessive, then is it possible for two people who are affected with the trait to produce offspring that do not have the trait? Draw a small pedigree to illustrate. Label the genotypes for all individuals included
    • aa Affected
    • aa Affected

    Not possible
  88. If a trait is autsomal dominant, then is it possible for two people who are affected with the trait to produce offspring that do not have the trait? Draw a small pedigree to illustrate. Label the genotypes for all individuals included
    • Aa Affected
    • Aa Not affected

    aa Yes possible

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