Exam 4

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Exam 4
2012-04-23 02:18:40
animals brittany bsc1005

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  1. Characteristics of Animals
    • multicellular eukaryotes
    • cells lack cell walls
    • heterotrophic
    • blastula stage
    • secrete extracellular matrix
  2. Parazoa vs eumetazoa
    • Parazoa no true tissues
    • Eumetazoa true tissues
  3. Body symmetry
    • Asymmetry- no symmetry
    • Radical- no matter which way you split it you will get symmetry
    • bilateral- only can be split in two
  4. blastula vs gastrula
    • blastula- no openings
    • gastrula- one opening
  5. ectoderm
    outer layer of the gastrula
  6. endoderm
    inner layer of the gastrula
  7. mesoderm
    inside layer of cell
  8. Protostomes
    Mouth develops first
  9. Deuterostomes
    Anus develops first
  10. Incomplete digestive tract
    Gastrovascular cavity
  11. Segmentation
    • division of an animal body into repeated parts
    • adds to the body's flexibility
    • potential for specialized body parts
  12. Direct vs indirect reproduction
    • direct- no larval stage
    • indirect- larvae undergo metamorphosis
  13. What taxon of animals is eumetazoan, has bilateral symmetry, and are protostomes?
  14. Porifera
    • Mostly marine
    • not true tissues
    • inner layer of flagellated cells
    • filter feeder
    • Hermaphrodites
  15. Cnidaria
    • Mostly marine
    • Radially symmetrical
    • Polyp or medusa body forms
    • carnivores
    • tentacles
    • gastrovascular cavity
  16. Cnidocytes
    tiny harpoons
  17. Mollusca
    • All environments
    • Body includes a mantle, a foot, visceral mass, and radula
  18. Mollusca largest groups
    • Chitons- 8 overlapping shells
    • Bivalves- Two hinged shells
    • Gastropods- Large crawling foot
    • Cephalpods- tentacles connected to head
  19. Arthropoda
    • Largest group
    • Jointed appendages
    • exoskeleton made of chitin
    • 3 major body regions
    • brain and ventral nerve cord
    • direct or indirect development
  20. Chelicerates
    • Two body parts- abdomen and fused head and thorax
    • Include spiders, horseshoe crabs, ticks, and scorpions
  21. Mandibulates
    • Mandibles
    • Myriapods
    • Crustaceans
    • Insects
  22. Myriapods
    • Millipedes and Centipedes
    • Terrestrial
    • Head with mandibles and one pair of antennae
    • Rest of body divided into repeating subunits, each with 1 or 2 pairs of appendages
  23. Crustaceans
    • Mostly aquatic
    • Head with mandibles and 2 pairs of antennae
    • 2 or 3 major body regions
  24. Insects
    • >1 million species
    • High reproductive rate
    • Mandible and 1 pair of antennae
    • Head, thorax and abdomen
    • 6 legs and usually 2 pairs of wings
  25. What phylum of animals always has radial symmetry?
  26. Chordata
    • Notochord
    • Dorsal hollow nerve cord
    • Pharyngeal pouches or slits
    • Postanal tail
  27. Cranium
    • Most chordates have a bony or cartilage-rich cranium
    • Protects brain
    • craniates-hagfish and vertebrates
  28. Vertebrae
    • Vertebrates have a verebral column
    • Composed of cartilage or bone
    • Protect spinal cord
    • Provide attachment place for muscles
  29. Jaws
    • Hinged jaw developed from gill support
    • Expanded ways animals could feed
  30. Lungs
    Most air-breathing vertebrates have lungs
  31. Limbs
    • Tetrapodes are vertebrates with two pairs of limbs
    • Enable animal to walk on land
  32. Amnion
    • Sac that encloses the developing embryo
    • Amniotes- reptiles and mammals
  33. Ectotherm
    • Body temperature fluctuates with the environment
    • No internal mechanism to regulate temperature
  34. Endotherm
    Maintain body temperature using heat generated from their own metabolism
  35. Fishes
    • Most diverse and abundant of vertebrates
    • Aquatic
    • Gills and fins
    • Lungs and "limbs" originated in fishes
  36. Jawless fishes
    • Lampreys
    • Simplest organisms to have cartilage around the nerve chord
  37. Cartilaginous fishes
    • Sharks, skates and rays
    • Lateral line
  38. Bony fish
    Bony tissue reinforced with calcium phosphate
  39. Amphibians
    • First tetrapods
    • "Double-life"
    • Porous skin makes them good indicators of environmental quality
  40. Frogs and toads
    No necks
  41. Salamanders and newts
    Tails and 4 legs
  42. Caecilians
  43. Amphibians Life on land=new adaptations
    • Lungs improved
    • Circulatory system more complex and powerful
    • Skeleton denser
  44. Amphibians Life in water=features retained
    • Eggs have no protective shells
    • Tadpoles have external gills
  45. Reptiles
    • Includes birds
    • Most reptiles live and reproduce on dry land
    • Tough scales
    • Internal fertilization
    • Amniotic eggs
  46. Nonavian Reptiles
    • Ectothermic
    • Major Groups
    • Turtles and tortoises
    • Lizards and snakes
    • Tuataras
    • Crocodilians
  47. Avian Reptiles
    • Have feathers
    • Most birds fly
    • Lightweight bones
    • 4 chambered heart
    • Unique lungs
    • Endotherms
  48. In addition to birds, what other group of animals are endotherms?
  49. Mammals
    • Have mammary glands and hair
    • 3 middle ear bones
    • Lower jaw is 1 bone
    • Molars, premolars, canines, and incisors
  50. Living mammals also have
    • 4-chambered heart
    • Outer layer of brain well developed
    • Diaphragm for breathing
  51. Monotremes
    • Lay eggs
    • Urinary, digestive, and reproductive tracts share a single opening to the outside
    • Duck-billed platypus and echidnas
  52. Marsupials
    • Short pregnancy
    • Give birth to relatively undeveloped young
  53. Placental
    • Much longer pregnancy
    • Plecenta- connects maternal and fetal circulatory systems. Nourishes and removes wastes from developing fetus
  54. How do monotremes, marsupials, and placental mammals differ in how they reproduce?
    • Monotremes- lay eggs
    • Marsupials- give birth to undeveloped young and have them finish developing in a pouch
    • Placental- Have long pregnancies and nourish and remove waste from developing fetus through the circulatory systems
  55. When did land plants evolve
    500 mya
  56. What is the closest relative to land plants
    Green algae
  57. desiccation
  58. Plants had to develop what to get minerals and water
    • Roots
    • vascularization (presence of conducting tissues)
    • cuticle
  59. Cuticle
    wax covering of the whole plant body except where roots absorb water and minerals
  60. How did plants evolve to deal with direct sunlight?
    Development of epidermis
  61. How did plants evolve to support its weight?
    Vascular tissue in bundles
  62. Lignin
    Forms wood
  63. Unstable environment
    diploid body allows for higher genentic diversity
  64. Plant Life Cycle
    Alternation of generations
  65. sporophyte
    • Plant that produces spores
    • Sporophyte is 2n
  66. Gametophyte
    • Plant that produces gametes
    • Gametophyte is 1n
  67. Less water for sperm and spores to swim through
    • Spores in mosses and ferns are dispersed by wind
    • Higher plants:
    • Spores not dispersed
    • pollen carries male gamete to stationary female gametes
  68. Bryophytes
    • Mosses
    • Lack vascular tissues
    • Gametophyte (haploid) is the dominant stage of the life cycle
    • disperse via spores
    • Very dependent on water
  69. Seedless Vascular Plants
    • Ferns
    • Do have vascular tissue
    • Sporophyte (2n) is the dominant stage of the life cycle
    • Disperse via spores
    • Dependent on water: sperm needs water to swim to egg
  70. Gymnosperms
    • Conifers (pines), cycads, gingko
    • Most are woody
    • Gametophyte develops inside of the sporophyte
    • Disperse via seeds
    • Very low dependence on water
  71. Angiosperms
    • All flowering plants
    • Can be woody or herbaceous
    • Gametophyte develops inside of sporophyte
    • Disperse via seeds produced within fruits
    • Very low dependence on water
  72. Yellow and white plants with guiding lines are pollenated by?
  73. Purple flowers that smell rotten are pollenated by?
  74. Red flowers with nector are pollenated by?
  75. What is the only unicellular fungi
  76. Why are fungi more closely related to animals than to plants?
    • Not photosynthetic
    • Cell wall made of chitin
  77. Heterotrophic by absorption
    Release digestive enzymes to break down organic matter outside their bodies
  78. Fungi can be
    • Saprobes (decomposers)
    • Parasites
    • Mutualists
  79. Mycorrhizae
    • relationship between fungi and plant
    • Fungi increases surface area of root
  80. Hyphae
    thread like filaments
  81. mycelium
    a mass of aggregated hypae that may form visible strands in soil or decaying wood
  82. fruiting body
    a specialized sexual spore-producing organ
  83. Relevence of Fungi to Humans
    • Food
    • Nutrient cycling
    • Medicine
    • Plant growth
    • Diseases
  84. Anatomy
    • Study of an organism's structure
    • Describes the parts that compose the body
  85. Physiology
    Considers how those parts work
  86. Epithelial tissue
    • Covers internal and external surfaces
    • Protection, nutrient absorption, gas diffusion
    • Form glands
    • 90% of cancers occur in epithelial tissues
  87. Connective Tissues
    • Most widespread tissue
    • Scattered withing extracellular matrix (rich in collagen)
    • Function- Fill spaces, attch epithelium to other tissues, cushion organs, flexible but firm support, store fat
    • Examples- blood, bone, cartilage, tendons
  88. Muscle tissues
    • Cells contract with electrically stimulated
    • Abundant mitochondria
    • Functions- body temperature regulation, attach tissue to bone, digestion, waste elimination, movement of other tissues and organs
    • Types- skeleton, cardiacm and smooth
  89. Nervous Tissue
    • Forms rapid communitcation network
    • Cell types
    • Neurons- recieve, process, and transmit information
    • Neuroglia- support and assist neurons. schwann cells make myelin (lipids)
  90. Nervous system
    Network of cells for rapid communication
  91. Central Nervous System
    Brain and spinal cord
  92. Peripheral Nervous System
    Other neurons that carry information between the CNSand the rest of the body
  93. Endocrine system
    Glands that secrete hormones
  94. How do the Nervous systerm and the Endocrine system connect?
    The Hypothalamus
  95. Skeletal system
    Consists of bones, ligaments, and cartilage
  96. Muscular system
    Made up of individual skeletal muscles
  97. Digestive System
    • Dismantles food
    • Absorb the small molecules
    • Eliminates indigestible wastes
  98. Circulatory system
    • Consists of blood, vessels, and heart
    • Transports food molecules (and many other substances) throughout the body
  99. Respiratory System
    • Exchanges gases with the atmosphere
    • Upper and lower respiratory tracts
  100. What do the digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems work together to do?
    Aquire energy
  101. Urinary System
    Removes water-soluble wastes and other toxins from blood and eliminates them in urine
  102. Integummentary System
    Physical protection
  103. Immune system
    • White blood cells
    • Fights diseases
  104. Lymphatic system
    • Thymus, spleen, lymph nodes
    • Bridge between immune system and circulatory system
  105. The reproductive system
    • Produces the next generation
    • Organs that produce and transport sperm and egg cells
    • Female body nurtures developing offspring
  106. Organ System Interactions Promote Homeostasis
    Organ systems interact to maintain correct concentrations in the internal environment
  107. Homeostasis and Negative feedback
    • Action counters existing condition
    • Sensor, effector, supervisor (hypothalamus)
  108. Homeostasis and Positive feedback
    • Rare
    • Blood clotting, milk production
    • Doesnot maintain homeostasis
  109. Community
    Group of intercating populations
  110. Biotic
    Made up of living organisms
  111. Abotic
    Nonliving things
  112. Ecosystems
    Interactions between biotic and abiotic components
  113. Species richness
    Total Number of species occupying a habitat
  114. Relative abundance
    • Proportion of community that each species occupies
    • Examples of a forest with 100 species
    • if 90% of the individuals belong to 1 species= low diversity
    • If each species contributes with 1% of the individual= high diversity
  115. Diversity takes
    both richness and abundance in considereation
  116. Competition
    • Two or more organisms vie for the same limited resource
    • Effects for both are negative
    • Intraspecific- within the same species
    • Interspecific- between species
  117. Symbiosis
    • One species lives on or in another
    • Three types: Mutualism, Commensalism, Parasitism
  118. Mutualism
    • Both partners have improved fitness
    • Example: Mycorrhizal fungi and plant
  119. Commensalism
    • One species benefits, other is not affected
    • Example: Spanish moss and oak trees
  120. Parasitism
    • One species benefits at the expense of the other
    • Example: Mistletoe
  121. Herbivore
    Animal that consumes plants
  122. Predator
    animal that eats other animals or prey
  123. Plants and prey evlove in what way to defend themselves
    • Thorns, toxic chemical etc
    • Camouflage, warning colors, etc
  124. Invasive Species
    • Are competition to the natural animals, but live there easier than natural animals because they have no natural preditors there.
    • Example: myrcats moving into the jungle in Lion King 1 and 1/2 and eating the bugs.
  125. Keystone species
    • A species that has a pivotal role in the community
    • Makes up small portion of community by weight
    • Influence on community diversity is large
    • Example gopher tortoise
  126. Succession
    Gradual change over time in community's species composition
  127. Primary succession
    • No community existed previously
    • Pioneer species first to colonize
  128. Lichens
    Photosynthetic protista
  129. Soil is
    a relationship between a rock and lichons
  130. Secondary succession
    • Community disturbed, but not destroyed
    • Faster than primary succession
  131. Food Webs
    Depict the transfer of energy and atoms
  132. Food chain
    Series of organisms that successively eat one another
  133. Trophic Level
    describes position in food chain
  134. Phytoplankton
    Autotrophic animals that go with the current and cannot fight it
  135. Zooplankton
    heterotrophic plankton
  136. Gross primary production
    Total amount of energy fixed by all autotrophs in the ecosystem
  137. Net primary production
    Amount of energy available for consumers to eat
  138. Biomagnification
    Chemical becomes more concentrated at higher trophic level
  139. Chemicals of concern share two features
    • Fat Soluble
    • Not readily biodegraded
  140. The cuticle
    is a layer of lipids that covers the majority of the plant's body
  141. A flower that is yellow, has one flattened petal, and has guide lines visible under ultra violet light is most likely pollinated by
  142. Unlike plant cells, fungal cells lack
  143. When did organisms belonging to the Kingdome Plantae first appeared on Earth?
    Around 500 million years ago
  144. Vascularization
    is the evolution of tissues that conduct water, mineral and sugars throughout the plant
  145. Put the plant groups in order from most primitive to the one that evolved most recently
    • Mosses
    • Ferns
    • Conifers
    • Flowering plants
  146. True or False: Stomata are openings flanked by a pair of guard cells.
  147. Fungi and animals are similar in that they both
    Are heterotrophic
  148. The thread-like structures that make up a mycelium are
  149. One important way in which fungi are essential to agriculuture is
    THey have an association with plants roots that allow them to absorb more water and minerals than they would without the fungi
  150. Even semi-aquatic reptiles like crocodiles and alligators can spend much of their life on dry land. What adaptations do they have that allow them to reproduce on dry land?
    Internal fertilization and amniotic eggs
  151. What is a characteristic found only in animals?
    A young embryo that has the shape of a hollow sphere
  152. Bats, birds, and dragonflies can all fly. Which groups of animals have some members capable of flight?
    Reptiles, arthropods, and mammals
  153. Cnidarians all share the ability to...
    Sting predators and prey
  154. Which phyla is more closely related to chordates?
  155. What is a characteristic of hagfish?
    THey have a cranium
  156. True or False Spiders are insects
  157. A sea squirt is an example of a
  158. A circulatory system that keeps blood confined within vessels after leaving the heart is referred to as:
    A closed circulatory system
  159. Fossil and DNA evidence indicates that birds are members...