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___ causes the cells of the distal convoluted tubules to increase their rate of water reabsorption.
as proteins break down _________, ______, and _______ are produced
nitrogenous wastes urea, ammonia, creatine
the kidneys lie behind the
parietal peritoneum, retroperitoneal
listen to the pt, restricted protein intake will benefit __ ___ ____ but may not help ___
encourage verbalization of financial concerns and long term care options with representative from
- social services
- not support groups
pt teaching includes informing the pt of
the irrigant is an _____ solution
the pt who has a TRUP may have continuous closed bladder irrigation or intermittent irrigation to prevent
occlusion of the catheter with blood clots which would cause bladder spasms
care of a pt with an ileal conduit is a nursing challenge bc of the continual
complication of this procedure is
- drainage of the urine through the stoma
- wound infection, dehiscense, and urinary leakage
pt teaching centers on tasks of lifestyle adaption
- care of stoma
- fluid intake
- maintaining self esteem in light of altered body image
- modifying sexual activities
- early detection of complications
fluid intake should be incouraged to at least
2000mL in 24hrs unless contraindicated
all urine should be _____ bc stones may be any size, even the smallest speck must be saved for _________.
the loop diuretic prototype, ____, affects electrolytes to cause ____________, the deficiency of the electrolyte can cause ______ and ______ ______.
- muscle weakness
________ is a visual exam to inspect, treat, or diagnose disorders of the urinary bladder and proximal structures
_______ is completed on a clean catch or catheterized specimen
the pt and family need to know that _____ is expected after prostatic surgery.
the pt is informed that initially he may experience _____ and voiding _____ amounts with some ______.
risk factors include _______, ______,and ______ ________ ________ such as adult polycystic kidney disease and renal cystic disease secondary to renal failure
- familial incidence
- preexisting renal disorders
______ _______ is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for more than 40% of new cases. Emphasis is placed on _______ ________ for the pt who faces role change
- diabetes mellitus
- emotional support
to determine urine output, the nurse will subtract the amount of _____ fluid used with the foley cath output to calculate urine output.
medical management for nephritic syndrome depends on the extent of ____ involvement and may include the use of ___ and a low ____ high ___ diet.
the presence of _______ bodies in the urine, _________, occurs when excessive quantities for fatty acids are oxidized.
if the ____ is elevated, preventative nursing measures should be instituted to protect the pt from possible disorientation or seizures
Nursing dx include, but not limited to, pt pain r/t mobility of _____ _______
the ____ diuretic, _______, affects electrolytes to cause hypokalemia.
____ will turn the urine reddish orange
there will be _____ present in the urine from the intestinal secretions
the use of ____ _____ may help keep the pts and the pt's clothing dry. confused pts are at high risk for ____. restricting fluids will only decrease ______ during the night and will excerbate the dehydration and electrolyte imbalance.
- protective undergarments
______ has been used to prevent UTI in women prone to recurrent infection. Also used to tx acute UTI. monitor for lack of therapeutic effect. _____ and __ will increase dieresis, but not prevent UTI.
frequent ______ and metriculous ______ care can reduce the risk of ______ impairment secondary to urinary incontinence.
peds, especially girls, are susceptible to UTI because of the
the use of most diuretics, with the exception of _______ sparing diuretics, requires adding _______ daily to diet. Ex. baked potatoes, raw bananas, apricots, navel oranges, cantaloupe, winter squash.
bc pts receiving diuretics often have complicated dx conditions such as ____ _____, and _____ ______, record daily ____ _______ for the pt receiving diuretics. diet should be low in ___ and with no added salt in cooking.
- heart failure
- pulmonary edema
- morning weights
_____ in the urine usually indicates possible renal disease, muscle exertion, or dehydration. positive ____ indicates diabetes. positive ____ indicates liver dx with obstruction or damage. positive _____ indicates urinary infection.
_______ and ______ may exist microscopically even when other symptoms subside.
urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, retention, incontinence are common with _____. these occur bc of weakened _______ in the bladder and urethra, diminished neurologic sensation combined with ______ bladder capacity and the effects of medications such as diuretics. older _____ are at risk for stress incontinence bc hormonal changes and weakened pelvic musculature. inadequate fluid intake is less than ______/24hs can lead to urinary stasis.
s/s of fluid overload:
_______ in daily morning weights
- changes in pulse rate, respirations, cardiac sounds, lung fields
the ___ and ___ of urinary catheter are determined by the location and cause of the urinary tract problem.