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What are the roles and responsibilities that
define adulthood and are they the same around the world or do they vary?
Financial stability and living independently of their parents
What areas of human development do intergenerational relationships help develop in young adults?
Intimate relationships between parents and children
What is expected of a young adult in traditional societies, such as China, Mexico, and India, in regards to helping support the family? Is this still true today?
Filal duty- to financially support their parents
What type of support do young adults in industrialized countries receive when they go to college and who do they receive it from?
- Young adults will contribute to the economic maintenance of the parents. Financial aid is typically from the parents to the
What factors influence when a young adult moves out of the parental home?
- Adult’s biological parents still married, parental recourses, parental expectations, economic dimensions such as, housing
- cost, job opportunities, whether or not adult children have remained single
Be able to explain “Generativity”.
- Generativity-generates from parent-child relationships; establishing and guiding the next generation. Young adults
- establishment of a sense of Generativity, young adults develop the ability to care for others, which is a basic strength that reflects young adult maturity.
Distinct gender roles of the past: men’s roles are as family providers and women’s roles as wives and mothers
Generativity is occurred through parenthood and through employment.
Influenced by culture, or family tradition
Where do patterns in young adult’s intimate relationships come from?
Participation in simultaneous relationships as adult children contributes to individuals’ ongoing attachment to their parents and the achievement of intimacy with others
How are dilemmas resolved between young adults and their parents?
Dialectical reasoning- allows young adults to come up with more effective solutions to the problems they encounter.
Be able to describe “postformal thought”.
Problem finding is the ability of being able to discern the problems that need attention.
What is “problem finding”?
Problem-finding capabilities in adulthood emphasize that the ability to provide solutions to problems can be applied only once the problems have been identified.
If a young boy watches his father participate in housework, what is the potential outcome?
Less likely to associate household tasks as women’s tasks
What happens in the reconnection phase of parallel development?
Young adults must develop filial maturity. Is an adults capability of responding to the needs of the parent
What make up social status transitions?
Social status transitions refer to those changed in an individual’s life that modifies that person’s social role.
Normative social status transitions occur as young adults, graduate from college, enter a career, get married, or have children
Results in intergenerational closeness and contact
Non-normative social status transitions result from experiences such as, getting divorces or losing ones job
Results tend to negatively affect parent and adult-child relationship
What type of transitions draw middle-aged parents and their children together?
Going to college, being careers, getting married, and have children
Positive Impact: conforming to social norms in term of maturational development and transitions increase numbers of adult social roles that adult children share with their parents. Enhances affectionate ties between middle aged parents and their adult children
How is becoming a grandparent typically viewed?
It’s more satisfying being more energy and financial resources than as a parent
How do grandparents view the role of grandparenting compared to parenting?
Roles of grandparents remain a vital aspect of their lives and they are able to maintain close ties to their adult children as well as their grandchildren
Improved health and more active lifestyle
Impact ingenerational relationships are stable finances and early retirement
What is divorce in later life associated with?
Divorces older father are more likely than stable married older fathers to experience a decline in regular contact with at least one adult child.
Divorced older mothers are more likely than married older mothers to experience an increase in contact with older adult child
The possibility of a mother having little or not contact with an adult child is slightly increased by divorce
Divorce and remarriage also alters the financial support that these parents provide for their adult children
What contributes to an older person’s sense of integrity?
- In old age, individuals reexamine their lives and make judgments regarding whether
- they have accomplished the things they had hoped for in their work as well as
- in their personal relationships
If interpretation of their lives is a positive one is a sense of integrity
Whether or not their children have turned out as parents as well to whether parents have bee able to maintain satisfactory relations with their children over the years.
What factors influence the interaction between retired parents and their adult children?
The support required by older parents from their children in coping with retirement is minimal
The adjustment made by the family following the older parents’ retirement of older parents retirement is likely to be increased family participation by the retiree.
- Geographic distance between parents and children, gender of the retired persin, the presence or absence of grandchildren
Who is more likely to visit their adult children who have children: Grandmothers or Grandfathers?
Retired mothers are more likely to visit children with children
Retired fathers are more likely to visit children without children
What is the role of grandparents in traditional and Western cultures?
Traditional cultures value family interdependence, the lives of grandparents in these cultures are more integrated into the daily lives of grandchildren and grandparents are expected to play a central role in the upbringing of grandchildren.
Grandparents are likely to live with their adult children and grandchildren and to be apart of the social support system of the family
Latino American culture- older adults are twice more likely to influence childrearing, family decision making and advising in comparison to African American or European Americans
- Western Societies Role of the grandparent in ethnic minority cultures, European American grandparents are more likely to take on roles in relation to their grandchildren where by
- they maintain close relationships with their grandchildren while living independently from parent-child household.
What factors contribute to the rapid growth of grandparent-maintained households in the U.S.?
Lack of age-appropriate skills, low self-esteem, evelopmental delays, sexualized behaviors and hyperactive behavior
Caring for one’s grandchildren
Grandparents want to make sure grandchildren stay out of foster homes and monitor interactions between grandchildren and the parents
How much more likely are African American grandparents and Latin American grandparents to have custodial care over their grandchildren than White grandparents?
Twice as likely
What is the “family kinkeeper”?
Family kinkeeper is an important gender role that contributes to extended family are typically middle-ages older women who tend to provide the key connections between families
Kinkeepers gather the family together for celebrations and keep family members in touch with each other
Describe the interaction patterns of older adults and their adult children.
Relationship between middle-aged and older parent, extents to their involvement in the lives of their grandchildren
- Strength of these relationships between older parents, their children, grandchildren, spent together, by participating in leisure activities
- Intergenerational leisure and recreation activities provide meaning for all family members, contribute to continued family development and serve as a platform for rehearsal of family dynamics
Leisure activities serve as family rituals
In a collectivist culture, what happens when an older parent requires more extensive care?
Collectivist values have a history of working together for the welfare of entire family
Collectivist are less likely to think children should mind own business
Permitted to participates in the decisions of their aging parents and their involvement in their parents’ affair is less often a source of disagreement
What is the “person-first” approach to individuals with exceptionalities?
Person-first: focuses on the person rather than the exceptionality. Parents’ focus on things child can do or is able to learn, rather than the things a child has difficulty in achieving or cannot do.
What type of impact do children with exceptionalities have on their families?
Greif over loss of child’s expectations
Parents feel guilty about their disappointment
Resentful of the time and energy that caring for their child has a disability are initially negative, parents typically face up to the challenges connected with the role
Positive impact on families
What are the characteristics of parents who report more satisfaction with caring for a child with exceptionalities?
Parental level of emotional strain, have been linked to gratification from care giving
Younger parents find more satisfaction then older parents
What feelings do parents encounter when they learn of a child’s impairment?
1. A feeling of devastation, of being overwhelmed, and being traumatized
2. Feeling of shock, denial, numbness, and disbelief
3. Feelings of confusion when attempting to cope
4. Feelings of sense of loss of the “hoped for child”
5. Feelings of grief similar to those experienced at the death of a loved one
6. Feeling that future hopes are challenged or destroyed
7. Feelings of guilt, responsibility, and shame
8. Strong feelings of anger toward the medical staff involved with the child
9. Feelings of what-if’s, such as what if the child dies
10. Lowered self-esteem and parental efficacy as providers and protectors
11. Strained marital and family relations
12. Disruption in family routines
How can professionals best serve parents of children with exceptionalities?
- with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
Parents are to feel equal to professional
Parents are qualified by virtue of their children’s designated advocates
What makes autism a stressful disability?
Combination and severity of child’s behavior with autism and communication deficits presents these parents with unique challenges
Children with autism appear normal and strangers might not realize that a child with autism has a disability and might blame the child’s parents when the child displays aggression
Unrealistic expectations for the child lead to disappointment and blame as parents are consistently confronted by their child’s lack progress
- with difficult behaviors and lack of affection, reactions of others
- with autistic children become socially isolated which brings more stress.
What are the characteristics of ADHD?
Difficulty in focusing their attention, are easily distracted, display impulsive behavior, have trouble waiting their turn when playing games with other children, and tend to begin but not finish numerous activities
Why are grandparents important to families of children with physical impairments?
Family’s benefit from assistance and support from the child’s grandparents. The role of grandmothers are especially important because than tend to provide emotional support
Describe the common characteristics of families who have a gifted child/children.
Self-actualizing family system
mutually supportive relationships
appropriate degrees of closeness
open expression of thoughts and feelings
positive labeling of the child
taking pride in the child’s accomplishments
better parent-child communication patterns
moreintimacy in parent
What is the most common form of family violence in the U.S.?
What are potential outcomes of family violence?
Predict to replicate the aggressive behavior of their parents
increases parents risk for abusing their own children
most typical outcome for both men and women who were abused as children is to be nonviolent in their adult families
Who is at higher risk of child abuse?
Children of parental alcoholism
What is the typical outcome for adults who have been abused as children?
A tendency toward role reversal (parent depends on child)
defensiveness (that aims to defend one’s low self-esteem)
The propensity to blame others from their problems
Parenting attitudes that devalue children
What helps in developing resiliency in maltreated children?
Having a least one adult in their lives who nurtures them and provides for their basic needs help maltreated children to develop resiliency in the face of risk
How do preschoolers view death? Adolescents?
Preschoolers- Don’t understand death is permanent
Adolescents- have a clear understanding about death, they nevertheless struggle to come to gripts with the loss of parent