Brooke Marie

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Brooke Marie
2012-04-25 16:09:52
Microbio Chapter

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  1. Proxviridae
    • Double-stranded DNA
    • enveloped viruses
  2. Picornaviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • + strand
    • nonenvelope
  3. Coronaviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • + strand
    • enveloped
  4. Bunayaviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • – strand
    • multiple RNA strands
  5. Retroviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • 2 RNA strands
    • produce DNA
  6. Filoviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • – strand
    • one RNA strand
  7. Paramyxoviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • – strand
    • one RNA strand
  8. Orthomyxoviridae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • – strand
    • multiple RNA strands
  9. Calicivirdae
    • Single-stranded RNA
    • + strand
    • nonenveloped
  10. Genomic
    The molecular study of genomes
  11. Plasmid
    self-replicating extrachromosomal element
  12. Genotype
    The gene of an organism
  13. Phenotype
    Outcome of gene expression
  14. Genome
    All the genetic information in a cell
  15. Epigenome
    Genome level of control of gene expression
  16. Expression
    Genetic information is used within a cell to produce the proteins needed for the cell to function
  17. Recombination
    Genetic information can be transferred between cells of the same generation
  18. Replication
    Genetic information can be transferred between generations of cells
  19. DNA polymerase
    digests RNA primer and replaces it with DNA
  20. DNA ligase
    joins the discontinuous fragments of the lagging strand
  21. What unwinds the parental double helix?
  22. sythesized contunously
    leading strand
  23. synthesized discontinuously
    lagging strand
  24. Okazaki frangments are found in what step?
  25. Transcription begins when...
    RNA polymerase binds to the Promoter sequence
  26. Transcription stops when...
    RNA reaches the Termenator sequence
  27. There are no exons, and have no nucleaus so it does not have to be carried out in what?
  28. Exons and Introns is transcribed into what by what?
    RNA by RNA polymerase
  29. When does translations begin?
    At a start codon: AUG
  30. When does translation end?
    At nonsense codons:UAA, UAG, UGA
  31. synthesize a protein
  32. the genetic code is what?
  33. Direction of transcription
  34. Direction of translation
  35. Which is easier to use? Lactose or Glucose?
  36. Mutation
    A change in the genetic material
  37. Mutagen
    Agent that causes mutations
  38. Spontaneous mutations
    Occur in the absence of a mutagen
  39. Missense Mutation
    Change in an amino acid
  40. Nonsense Mutation
    Results in a nonsense codon
  41. Frameshift Mutation
    Insertion or deletion of one or more nucleotide pairs
  42. Causes thymine dimers
    UV radiation
  43. Ionizing radiation
    causes the formation of ions that can react with nucleotides and the deoxyribose-phosphate backbone
  44. Photolyases
    separates thymine dimers
  45. Positive (direct) selection
    detects mutant cells because the grow or appear different
  46. Negative (indirect) selection
    detects mutant cells becasue they do not grow
  47. Vertical gene transfer
    Occurs during reproduction between generations of cells
  48. Horizontal gene transfer
    Transfer of genes between cells of the same generation
  49. Transposons
    Segments of DNA can move from on region of DNA to another
  50. Where must viruses be grown?
    In living cells
  51. Lysogenic Cycle
    Infects bacteria and its DNA is now incorporated into the chromosome DNA so everytime it replicate, the virus will replicate too.
  52. Portals of Entry
    • Mucous membranes
    • Skin
    • Parenteral route
    • Preferred portal of entry
  53. Capsules
    Prevent phagocytosis
  54. Substance that contributes to pathogenicity
  55. Toxigenicity
    Ability to produce a toxin
  56. Toxemia
    Presence of toxin in the host's blood
  57. Toxoid
    Inactivated toxin used in a vaccine
  58. Antitoxin
    Antibodies against a specific toxin
  59. Exotoxins
    • Gram +
    • By-products of growing cell
    • Protein
    • No fever
    • IS neutralized by antitoxins
    • LD is small
  60. Endotoxins
    • Gram-
    • Outer membrane
    • Lipid A
    • has a fever
    • NOT neutralized by antitoxin
    • LD is relatively large
  61. Pathogenic properties of Algae
    • Paralytic shellfish poisoning
    • Saxitoxin
  62. Portals of Exit
    • Respiratory tract (coughing and sneezing)
    • Gastrointestinal tract (Feces and saliva)
    • Genitourinary tract (urine and vaginal secretions)
    • Skin
    • Blood (biting arthopods and needles or syringes)