CVA; brain attack; sudden loss of function resulting from disruption of blood supply to part of the brain.
Energy failure (anaerobic = no ATP)
Acidosis (ion imbalance)
Intracellular Ca increases
Cell membranes breakdown
Free radicals form
Cell injury/cell death
5 Types of Ischemic Stroke
Large Artery Thrombotic Stroke
Small Penetrating Artery Thrombotic Stroke
Cardiogenic Embolic Stroke
Other (Cocaine use, Migraine, Spontaneous dissection of arteries)
Atherosclerotic plaques in the large blood vessels of the brain lead to ______ stroke.
Large Artery thrombosis
Thrombosis in one or more vessels is a ___ stroke. It is also called a lacunar stroke, due to the cavity created after death of infarcted tissue.
Small Penetrating Artery thrombotic stroke
_____ strokes are associated with cardiac dysrhythmias, usually a-fib. Emboli originate in the heart and circulate to the brain.
Cardiogenic Embolic strokes
___ strokes have no known cause.
Strokes may be from other causes, such as:
spontaneous dissection of the carotid or vertebral arteries
Area of low cerebral blood flow, exists around the infarction. Changes in cell membrane depolarization enlarges the area of infarction into the penumbra, extending the stroke. It can be salvaged with timely intervention.
Clinical manifestations of Ischemic Stroke:
Numbness of weakness of face, arm, leg, or one side of body
Confusion or change in mental status
Trouble speaking or understanding speech
Difficulty walking, dizziness, loss of coordination or balance
Sudden severe headache
difficulty in speaking
loss of speech
Can be expressive, receptive, or global (mixed)
inability to perform previously learned actions
loss of half of visual field
inability to recognize previously familiar objects
weakness/paralysis of one side of the body
zone of tissue deprived of blood supply
numbness or tingling of extremity, occurs opposite side of lesion
Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) :
neurologic deficit lasting less than 1 hour.
Clinical manifestations of a TIA:
sudden loss of motor, sensory, or visual function.