The brains of people that have ad has an abundance of what 2 abnormal structure?
Beta-amyloid plaques- which are dense depositis of protein and cellular material that accumulates outside and around nerve cells
Neurofibrillary tangles, wharch ar twisted fibers that build up inside the nerve cell
What is the precurser to amyloid of plaque?
Amyloid precursor protein (APP)
Clinical manafestations of early AD
Forgetfulness beyond what is seen in a normal person
Short-term memory impairment, especially for new learning
Difficulty recognizing what numbers mean
Loss of initiative and interests
Short attention span
decreased performance when stressed
Clinical manifestations for moderate ad
Imparied ability to recognize close family or friends
wandering, getting lost
loss of remote memory
forgets how to do simple tasks
receptive or expressive aphasia
Clinical manifestations for severe (late) ad
Little memory, unable to process new information
Connot understand words
difficulty eating, swallowing
Repetitios words or sounds
unable to perform self-care activities
• skin infections,
•groaning, moaning, or grunting,
• increased sleeping, loss of bladder and bowel control. •Death from aspiration pneumonia or other infections.
•a detailed patient history
•information from family and friends
•physical and neurological exams and lab tests
•imaging tools such as CT scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). PET scans are used primarily for research purposes
When you have a patient with AD..
•Stay calm and be understanding.
•Be patient and flexible. Don’t argue or try to convince
.•Acknowledge requests and respond to them.
•Try not to take behaviors personally. Remember: it’s the disease talking, not your loved one.
Benzo: Ativan, Serax
Antipsycotics: Risperidol, haldol
Possible AD Nursing Diagnoses
oSelf care deficit
oImpaired verbal communication
oRisk for infection
oImpaired physical mobility
oCompromised family coping
oDisturbed sleep pattern
Nursing interventions AD
oCognitive stimulation: promote awareness to environment
oPresent change slowly and repeat changes
oUse therapeutic touch
oStimulate memory by repeating requests
oImplement memory techniques: name tags, visual clues, using computers, rehearsing activity of daily living
oMonitor drug therapy for effectiveness
oEncourage to participate in group activities
oSafety is the most important
Possible factors to cause seizures
Increased physical activity
abrupt increase in muscle tone, loss of consciousness and loss of autonomic functions lasting 30 sec to minutes
muscle contraction and relaxation. Lasts typically several minutes
Seizure drug therapy
barbiturates: (phentobarbital or luminol, mysoline) increase seizure threshold, may require high doses to raise the threshold: can be used for all seizures except absence.
Side effects: many including vertigo, drowsy, N&V, night terrors, stevens-johnson syndrome (rash, fever, joint pains, resp infection and vomiting. Do not stop medication without weaning and without MD orders
watch dilantin and valium interaction must keep separate