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What is the source of conflict over winning?
Competition is at the heart of conflict over winning.
What is Perceived Fairness of the distribution of rights and resources?
Distributive Justice: what kind of distribution is it when the outcomes are based off of a group members inputs
Distributive Justice: What kind of distribution is it when all group members receive equal share irrespective of whatever they input?
Distributive Justice: What distribution is it when those with more authority, status, and control receive more reward?
Distributive Justice: What distribution is it when an outcome is based on the needs of the group members?
Distributive Justice: What distribution is it when those who have the most are expected to share with those who have less
When Steve Jobs and Sculley were fighting over who would control Apple what was that conflict over?
When a group conflicts of how to do a job what is the conflict over?
Task and Process
What do the following escalate to when conflict escalates in a situation?
Soft tactics ->
- Uncertainty ->Commitment
- Perception ->Misperception
- Soft tactics ->Hard Tactics
- Reciprocity ->Upward Conflict Spiral
- Few ->Many
- Irritation ->Anger
What is the medium for conflict resolution that each of the following must undertake?
Hard Tactics ->
Upward Conflict Spiral ->
- Commitment ->Negotiation
- - Soft Negotiation: gentle, yielding, avoid confrontation
- - Hard Negotiation: Tough, competitive, contentious
- - Principled Negotiation: Problem solving, choices objective
- Misperception ->Understanding
- Hard Tactics ->Cooperative tasks
- - Dual Concern Model: concern for self and others
- Upward Conflict Spiral ->Downward Conflict spirals
- - Tit for Tat: Cooperation is met with cooperation and competition with competition
- Many -> Few - Using third party mediators
- Anger -> Composure
- - affective responses increase. Concession leading to apology.
Conflict isn't what leads to problems . What is the true source of problems when conflict arises?
Poor management of conflict is what leads to problems.
What theory suggests that conflict between groups stems from competition for scarce resources?
Realistic Group Theory
What is the effect when greater competitiveness of groups when interacting with other groups relative to the competitiveness of individuals interacting with other individuals called?
The Discontinuity effect
What are some causes of the discontinuity effect?
- Greed is greater in grouops
- People fear groups more than they fear individuals
- People in groups believe they should maximize the group's collective outcome.
- Diffusion of responsibility (feeling less responsible leads to more competitiveness and even hostility)
What theory suggests that conflict between groups results from dynamic tensions between hierarchicly ranked groups within society?
Social Dominance Theory
When threats are answered with threats, insults with insults, and aggression with aggression, what norm is being exhibited?
Norm of Reciprocity
What theory suggests that hostility caused by circumstances or another group can become displaced on a different innocent group?
What is the tendency to favor one's own group over all others?
The Ingroup-Outgroup Bias
The in group-outgroup bias is really two biases in one. What are the two biases?
- In Group Positivity: Favoritism toward the group with which the person is affiliated
- Out Group Negativity: Rejection of any group that is not affiliated with the person
What is the perception that one's own group is very diverse and different whereas the other group's members are similar?
The Outgroup Homogeneity Bias
What is it called when someone attributes characteristics present in a few outgroup members to the entire group?
Group Attribution Error
What is it called when a person is attributing negative actions by members of the outgroup to personal qualities, and positive actions to situational circumstances?
Ultimate Attribution Error
What is a generalization that tends to be exaggerated, negative,, and resistant to revision?
Although anger is generally felt toward individuals only, where is hatred generally placed?
Toward whole classes of people. -Gordon Allport
What does Moral Exclusion and Dehumanization do to the ingroups perception of the outgroup?
- Moral Exclusion places the outgroup outside of the moral realm.
- Dehumanization puts the outgroup outside the human realm
What are some was of Resolving Intergroup Conflict?
- Positive Contact
- Equal Status: The Christian equalizer - all created in God's image; all fallen; all redeemable
- Personal interaction: informal; face-to-face
- Supportive Norms: Friendliness, being helpful
- Cooperation: Willing to work together
- Superordinate goals: goals that can only be achieved if members of two or more groups work together by pooling their efforts and resources
What are some Cognitive Cures for intergroup conflict?
- Decategorization: reducing social categories; seeing people as individuals
- Common Ingroup Identity Model: Emphasizing the interdependence of all individuals into one group
What is the psychological reaction (mood feelings, emotions) evoked by a setting
When does overload take place?
When complex stimulating environments overwhelm group members
What factors would contribute to a stressful group setting?
- Extreme TemperaturesUnwanted Noise
- Dangerous Place
What is a physical location that creates a readiness for certain types of action called?
What is the degree of fit between the setting and it's human occupants?
- (High synomorphy = people fit into the physical setting and operate effectively)
What theory suggests that having either too many peole on one job or not enough people is detrimental to the task to be accomplished?
Staffing Theory: (overstaffing/understaffing)
What are the various types of group Spaces?
- Hives: divisible, structured tasks, little interaction (cubicles)
- Cells: complex, individualized projects need private spaces (walled offices)
- Dens: Collective tasks, working together (open space that all members share)
- Clubs: diverse tasks that require specialized skills with some collaboration (walled and open area)
What is the area that individuals maintain around themselves into which others cannot intrude without arousing discomfort?
Personal Space..... duh!!
Personal space for groups can be divided into various Interpersonal Zones. What is the stratification of these different "Zones"?
- Intimate Zone: (Arm wrestling, whispering)
- Personal Zone: (Talking to friends or acquaintances, maintaing conversation
- Social Zone: (Meetings held over large desks, formal dining, and professional presentations
- Public Zone: (More formal, stage presentations, lectures, addresses)
- Remote Zone: (different location, cyber-communication)
What does the Equilibrium Model of Communication suggest?
The amount of Eye Contact
and the Intimacy
of the topic influence the amount of Personal Space
- Gender:Women require less space than men
- Status: Subordinates need More space when conversing with superiors. Friends need Less space than when talking with strangers
- Culture: Contact cultures/noncontact cultures
What Hypothesis states that high density intensifies whatever is already occurring in the group situation?
In relation to Spatial Invasion, what makes people less stressed in crowd situations?
Controllability: knowing that they can control their circumstances
In regard to Seating Arrangements in group situations, what type of space promotes interaction?
In regard to Seating Arrangements in group situations, what type of space discourages interaction?
What type of therapy utilizes "role-playing" to gain insight?
By what medium does group therapy help people overcome psychological problems?
Transference of problems to other groups members
What approach to group therapy encourages teaching group members to understand the unity of their emotions and cognitions through a leader-guided exploration of their behavior in the group situation?
Gestalt group therapy
What is the structure of a T-Group?
- Very little structure
- use of a facilitator to catalyse discussion alone.
What type of group offers a form of sensitivity training that provides individuals with the opportunity to gain deep interpersonal intimacy with other group members?
What type of Interpersonal learning group offers a planned intervention such as a workshop, seminar, or retreat, focusing on a specific interpersona problem or skill?
Structured Learning Group
Groups that exist to provide support for people with any kind of medically related or addiction related problem would be called what?
Support Groups/Self-Help Groups
When people are with others who share similar problems or troubling events, they feel better, in terms of self-esteem and mood, than when they are with dissimilar people. What concept does this strengthen?
Universality and Hope
What type of Social learning learns by observing and imitating the actiosn of models?
What type of Social Learning learns by listening to feedback messages gathered by watching other peoples reactions?
What type of Social learning listens to provided guidance, advice, and direction?
What is it called when someone reveals personal, individual, intimate information about oneself to another?
What is release of emotional tension called?
What is the desire to something for another group member?
What is a large group of people who display similarities in actions and outlooks and tend to exist outside of traditional forms of social structures?
What is a group of individuals sharing a common focus and location
What is the difference between a Mob and a Riot?
Riots are mobs on a grand scale.
What is a Queue?
Persons waiting their turn (often in straight line).
What is a deliberate gathering of individuals to observe some event who are bound by tightly social conventions?
What is characteristic of a Panic?
What type of collective that is usually mobile, possibly violent (but not necessarily), disorderly and is characterized by emotion typically called?
What is the spread of behaviors, attitudes, and affect through crowds from one member to another called?
What theory suggests that collective behavior involves people with similar needs, values, and goals who converge together?
What is the experiential state caused by a number of input factors, such as group membership and anonymity, that is characterized by the loss of self-awareness, altered experiencing, and atypical behavior?
What theory suggests that collecive and uniform behavior is caused by members' conformity to unique normative standards that develop spontaneously?
Emergent Norm Theory
What Theory suggests that people in collectives don't lose their identity but rather develop a collective identity?
Social Identity Theory