Lab Normals for Exam 3

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Author:
nika.steffan
ID:
149620
Filename:
Lab Normals for Exam 3
Updated:
2012-04-29 22:33:52
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Patho Pharm
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Description:
Normal labs; abnormal signs and symptoms-- from urinary drugs
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  1. K+
    Serum Potassium= 3.5- 5
  2. Hypokalemia signs and symptoms
    - What do we use for elecrolyte replacement therapy
    K+ less than 3.5

    Symptoms: abnormal heart rhythms - atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmias, palpitations, weakness, flaccid paralysis, postural hypotension

    • Electrolyte Replacement therapy = Potassium *MUST be used w/ extreme caution, can cause cardiac arrest and venous irritation with too rapid admin (iv)
    • oral preps- lqd/elixer. give with meals
    • IV- Kphos or KCL (usually potassium chloride)
    • - for maintenance no greater than 40 MEq/L
    • - For "bolus" no more than 10 MEq per hour for peripheral line or 20 MEq for central **MUST BE DILUTED IN AT LEAST 50ml of fluid for each 10 MEq
  3. Hyperkalemia--
    *signs and symptoms
    *which urinary diuretic(s) cause this
    • K+ > 5.0
    • *nausea, diarrhea, muscle weakness, postural
    • hypotension, EKG changes
    • * Only Potassium Sparing Diuretics [Aldactone (spironolatone)] cause hyperkalemia
  4. BUN
    Blood Urea Nitrogen= 11-23
  5. CR
    Creatine= .6-1.2
  6. pH
    7.35-7.45

    pH < 7.35 = Acidosis: caused by kidney retaining excess H+ ion (acid) or wasting HCO3--(Can be suspected with serum CO2 < 21)

    pH > 7.45 = Alkolosis: caused by kidney retaining excess amounts of (HCO3 (base) Can be suspected with serum CO2 > 24)
  7. Serum bicarbonate
    • Renous = 23-29
    • Arterial = 21-27
  8. PO4
    Phosphate = 3-4.5
  9. Mg
    Magnesium = 1.3-2.1
  10. Hypomagnesemia

    *Electrolyte Replacement therapy used =
    Mg<1.3

    cardiac dysrhythmias, nausea & vomiting, lethargy, muscle weakness, tremors, tetany

    • *Magnesium (1-4 gms common)
    • 1. Oral Preparations- Magnesium Oxide is most common form.
    • 2. IV Replacement: Magnesium Sulfate is most common form. Usually given as Piggyback over 1 hour, but
    • can be pushed over 1 min in an emergent
    • situation. Use here is for replacement only, not as therapy as is used in Labor and Delivery situations.
  11. Hct
    Hematocrit =

    • Men 40-54
    • Women 37-47
  12. Hgb
    Hemoglobin

    • Men 13-18
    • Women 12-16
  13. Proteinuria
    10-150 or Negative
  14. Ca+
    Serum Calcium = 8.4-10.2

    • Hypocalcemia= Ca+<8.4
    • Signs & symptoms = irritability, twitching, vomiting & diarrhea, hyperactive reflexes, cardiac dysrhythmias, tetany and seizures
  15. Na+
    Serum Sodium = 135-145

    Hyponatremia, Hypernatremia
  16. Hyponatremia-- signs and symptoms
    Na+ less than 135

    lethargy, disorientation, muscle tenseness, seizures, coma
  17. Cl
    Chloride = 100-110

    hYPOCHLOREMIA- Usually follows sodium)
  18. Platelets
    150,000 - 400,000
  19. Hypovolemia-- definition and signs and symptoms
    Decreased blood volume
  20. -hypotension, weak pulse, tachycardia, clammy
    skin, rapid respirations, reduced urinary output
  21. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia vs Hyperglycemia

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