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Truman wanted more New Deal. He wanted more government programs. Nearly all of it is blocked by Congress. Rep is making a comeback in the Congress. The best one was the GI Bill of Rights, provided help to veterans coming back from war, mostly educational help.
Truman vetos this but Congress overrides it. It's seen as anti-union. It Outlawas the closed shop. You cannot work in this factory unless you are in the Union. Also said that a Union Offical must sign a statment that you were not a communist. 80 day postponement of strikes to try and work it out.
Election of 1948
- Dem: Truman
- Rep: Thomas Dewey
- Progressive Party: Henry A. Wallace
- States Rights Party: "Dixicrats" Storm Thurman. These were the ones that branched off. There were some that believed in States Rights, but most of them were just racist.
- The progressive party were the democrats that blamed Truman for the Cold War.
- Truman pulls out a miracle win.
This was said by Churchill, it was descending from Baltic to the Adriatic, it was holding behind it lots of communist stats. "Domino Theory" this was the nations to the east that were falling one after another to communism.
Every president from Truman on follows this policy of Containment, unitl Ronald Regan. It means our policy is to contain communist expansion, so basically to stop the expansion of it. We are not trying to liberat, just STOP.
This involves the nation of Greece. Greece was having a Civil War. Communist Greeks are supported by the USSR, are fighting the non-communist Greeks who are supported by the US. It keeps Greece from falling to communism, and they establish a non-communist type government in 1947.
Marshall Plan (George C. Marshall)
This gives an enormous amounts of aide to Western Europe so they can rebuild. So they wouldn't go communist. We offered this to Eastern Europe as well, but the communist said NO you can't take that.
The Soviets set up a blockade that prevernts us from getting into Berlin, they cut off our access to West Berlin.
We will supply West Berlin by air. We land planes from Western Germany in West Berlin and give them supplies. This is how we get away from the Blockade. We do this almost a year, over 300 days. So the Soviets finally back down.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
This is a defensive alliance, the nations of the North Atlantic (Nations of Western Europe, Turkey, France). It is an alliance against Soviet agression.
- Republican Senator from Wisconsin, WW1 Veteran.
- In 1950 he holds up a piece of paper and says on this i have the names of Communist that are in America (in the stat department and the defence apartment). He says this in front of a women's group.
- This leads to the McCarthy era and it lasts about 4 years. Then it falls out and people lie about him. Most of what people say about him is not true.
- The McCarthy Witch Hunt, these are people saying we are treating communists as Witches. They are saying these people are innocent, when McCarthy was the innocent one.
McCarthy said there were spies in the army. ABC televises the Senate hearing of this in 1954. McCarthy on TV did not translate well, and the people turn against him and have been demonizing him ever since.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
This was a married couple who was convicted of espionage. They were said to give atomic secrets away. They were executed and were completley guilty. When the Soviets fell, they released records and the Rosenberg's were guilty.
House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC)
This was an anit-communist committee. The head was Richard Nixon and he goes after Alger Hiss. He accused Hiss of espionage. We know now that he was guilty. They convicted Hiss of perjury, lying under oath. This is a felony crime. Hiss went to prison. Served his time and always said he was innocent.
He is a communist, and he is Duking it out for control of China against Chiang Kai-shek who is non-communist. We support Chiang because he isn't communist This is basically a Chinese civil war. The Soviets support Mao. 1949, China falls to communism. Mao wins and Chiang and his people are forced out to Taiwan, this is known as nationalist China.
- Japan and China both have conquered Korea previously. The country was artificially divided by the 38th parallel. It was divided into two parts.
- North Korea was given to USSR and US would have South Korea. NK is communist, SK wasn't a democracy or communist.
- This was not permanent.
- In June 1950, NK attacks SK. NK does really well and pushes the people of SK into a little peninsula. So we go to the UN. The UN voted to support SK (USSR missed the meeting).
- We put Douglas MacArthur in charge of this. He invades deep behind the lines of NK, at Inchon. This was a huge success and it pushed NK back over the 38th parallel. MacArthur keeps going, and now he is doing more than Containment. He goes all the way up, and now communist China is coming in from above. MacArthur wants to bomb the supply tracks to China. Truman said NO, because he thought if we did this it could escalate into WW3. MacArthur disregards a lot of what Truman says. So Truman fires MacArthur.
- MacArthur has a huge welcome, and they settle to a cease fire in 1953.
Demilitarized Zone, this was the new line that divided Korea.