KIN 2509 Ch 19

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KIN 2509 Ch 19
2012-04-23 18:36:25

Ch 19 Oncology
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  1. DNA
    • deoxyribonucleic acid
    • a nucleic acid found in all living cells; carries the genetic information of an organism
  2. HIV
    • human immunodeficiency virus
    • a retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)
  3. metastasis
    the process by which tumor cells spread to different parts of the body
  4. mutation
    • an unusual change in genetic material occuring spontaneously or by induction
    • the alteration changes the original expression of the gene
    • often transmitted to later generations
  5. precursor
    • one that precedes and indicates the approach of something else
    • ex - polyp may be a precursor of a cancerous tumor
  6. RNA
    • ribonucleic acid
    • a nucleic acid found in both the nucleus and cytoplasm of cells that transmit genetic instructions from the nucleus to the cytoplasm
    • in cytoplasm - functions in assembly of proteins
    • found in many viruses, as in the genetic material of AIDS
  7. RNA virus
    any group of viruses with the core of RNA
  8. aden/o
  9. blast/o
    embryonic cell
  10. carcin/o
  11. cauter/o
    heat, burn
  12. chem/o
    chemical, drug
  13. cry/o
  14. hist/o
  15. immun/o
    immune, immunity
  16. leiomy/o
    smooth muscle (visceral)
  17. adenocarcinoma
    a malignant tumor of glandular epithelium
  18. neuroblastoma
    a malignant neoplasm characterized by immature, only slightly differentiated nerve cells of embryonic type
  19. carcinogenesis
    forming, producing, or origin
  20. cauterization
    process of burning a part of the body by cautery
  21. chemotherapy
    treatment of disease by means of chemical substances or drugs; usually used in reference to neoplastic disease of cancer
  22. cryosurgery
    use of subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue
  23. histopathology
    the study of diseases involving the tissue cells
  24. immunotherapy
    the application of immunologic knowledge and techniques to prevent and treat diseases
  25. leiomyosarcoma
    a malignant neoplasm composed of smooth muscle
  26. leuk/o
  27. mut/a
    genetic change
  28. myel/o
    bone marrow, spinal cord
  29. onc/o
  30. rhabdomy/o
    striated (skeletal) muscle
  31. sarc/o
    flesh (connective tissue)
  32. leukemia
    hematologic malignancies (liquid tumors) in which immature blood cells multiply at the expense of normal blood cells
  33. mutagen
    any agent that promotes or produces a mutation or causes an increase in the rate of mutational change
  34. myeloma
    tumor composed of cells derived from hemopoietic tissues of the bone marrow
  35. oncology
    study of tumors
  36. rhabdomyoma
    a striated muscular tissue tumor
  37. sarcoma
    a malignant tumor of connective tissue
  38. ana-
    without, not
  39. dys-
    bad, painful, difficult
  40. hyper-
    excessive, above normal
  41. hypo-
    under, below normal
  42. meta-
    change, beyond
  43. neo-
  44. anaplasia
    loss of cellular differentiation, characteristic of most malignancies
  45. dysplasia
    any abnormal development of tissues or organs
  46. hyperplasia
    excessive proliferation of normal cells in the normal tissue arrangement of an organ
  47. hypochromia
    a condition of the blood in which the red blood cells have a reduced hemoglobin content
  48. metastasis
    the process by which tumor cells spread to distant parts of the body
  49. neoplasm
    new formation of growth