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  1. What are the 10 functions of the blood?
    • O2 transport
    • CO2 Transport
    • Nutrient Transport
    • Waste transport
    • Hormone transport
    • Acid-base balance
    • Temperature regulation
    • Coagulation
    • H2O Balance
    • Antibody production
  2. What are the components of blood?
    • Plasma
    • Erythrocyctes
    • Leukocytes
    • Thrombocytes
  3. What is plasma without fibrinogen?
  4. What creates the viscosity of the blood?
    Albumens in the plasma.
  5. What helps to create anitbodies in the plasma?
  6. Why can't serum clot?
    because serum does not have fibgrinogen like plasma does.
  7. What are is the structure of RBC's?
    They are biconcave discs that are anucleate and packed full of hemoglobin.
  8. Erythropoiesis
    The production of RBC's in red marrow in the pelvis or axial areas. If younger than 25 at the proximal ends of humerous and femur bones.

    Production occurs art 2.5 million/sec.
  9. What are RBC's made of?
    • Amino acids
    • Iron
    • Folic Acid
    • Vit. B12
  10. Name the 2 important precursors that eventually tranform into an erythrocyte.
    Hemocytoblast then turns into reticulocyte which turns into an erythrocyte.
  11. define hematocrit.
    the percent of red blood cells in the blood.
  12. what are the average hematocrit for a male and female?
    Male: 45% + or - 5%

    Female: 42% + or - 5%
  13. What hormone regulates RBC production?
  14. What causes erythropoietin to be produced?
    hypoxic kidneys.

    Kidneys sense low levels of O2 which then sends out the message to release erythropoietin to increase the RBC production in the marrow.
  15. What could happen if athletes abuse erythropoietin?
    It can clog up the blood due to too much RBCs.
  16. How long do RBC's last and what happens to them once they die?
    127 days. (about 4 months)

    RBCs wear out and are destroyed by macrophanges in the liver and spleen where they are recycled.
  17. How are RBCs broken down?
    • The hemeglobin is broken apart.
    • Heme + Globin

    • Heme --> biliruben waste product. Goes into bile to the instestines and is worked on by bacteria in the colon.
    • Globin ---> Brioken into AAs and Iron which is then recycled.
  18. Name 4 anemias
    • Nutrional anemia
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Hemorrhagic anemia
    • sicle cell anemia
  19. Which anemia disorder is the result of a recessive gene?
    Sickle Cell anemia
  20. Why is Sickle Cell anemia an interesting type?
    It protects against malaria, which is why it is primarily found in African descendants. 1 in 10 African Americans carry this gene.
  21. Which anemia is due to the lack of intrinsic factor?
    Pernicious anemia.

    It's due to the lack of absorption of B12 due to lack of intrinsic factor from the stomach.
  22. What is Polycythemia?
    The excess of RBCs
  23. Ture or False. Sickle Cell anemia is not an inherited disorder.
  24. Define Anemia.
    decrease in RBCs or hemoglobin in cells.
  25. Where are leukocytes produced and what is their life cycle?
    Come from hemocytoblasts in bone marrow. They live short lives due to body defense.
  26. What are the different types of leukocytes?
    Granulocytes and Agranulocytes
  27. Name the granulocytes of leukocytes
    • Neutrophils
    • Basophils
    • Eosinophils
  28. Name the types of agranulocytes leukocytes.
    • Lymphocytes
    • Monocytes
  29. What are monocytes?
    agranulocytes WBC.

    shapped like a kidney bean.

    become macrophanges. "Big Eaters"
  30. What are neutrophils?
    Granulocyte WBC. (pink granules stain)

    Phagocytes that move toward leukotaxins in ameboid movement.

    2-5 segments to nucleus.

    "Crawl. Eat. Die"
  31. What are eosinophils?
    Granulocytes WBC. (red stain)

    Bi-lobed nucleus

    Protect against parasites and allergies. Granules have antihistamine.
  32. What does the anithistamine in the eosinophiles do?
    It blocks the histamine to calm inflamation and allergies.
  33. what are lymphocytes?
    Agranulocytes WBC.

    Production of antibodies. Not Phagocytic.

    Have large round nucleus. T &B types.
  34. What are basophils?
    granulocyte WBC. (blue stain)

    Produce heparin and histamine. Called mast cells in the tissues.

    Bi-lobed nucleus.
  35. What is Leukocytosis?
    increase in WBCs due to infection
  36. What is Leukopenia?
    • Decrease in WBCs due to disease (AIDs). Certain drugs.
    • (viruses-viral infections)
  37. What is Leukemia?
    cancer of WBCs producing tissues
  38. What is the differential count?
    the % of different types of WBCs
  39. What is a "typical" differential count?
    • 65% nuetrophils
    • 25% lymphocytes
    • 6% monocytes
    • 3% eosinophils
    • 1% basophils
  40. Why might there be an increase in neutrophils?
    bacterial infection
  41. Why might there be an increase in lymphocytes?
    viral infection
  42. why might there be an increase in monocytes?
    chronic bacterial infection
  43. If there is an increase of eosinophils, what might be going on?
  44. In an increase of basophils, mostly like there is what going on?
    chronic inflamation
  45. What is another name for Thrombocytes?
  46. What do thrombocytes do?
    form platelet plug and produce clotting factors
  47. What are the 3 phases of hemostasis?
    • vasoconstriction
    • platelet plug formation
    • coagulation
  48. Complete. _______ ----> ______----> thrombocytes.
    Hemacytoblasts ----> megakaryoblast---> thrombocytes
  49. What happens during platelet formation?
    When the vessels are damaged, platelets adhere to rough edges. Thromboxane A-2 and ADP are released and are sticky. Platelets stick to collagen and seal the leak.
  50. Explain the Intrinsic Pathway
    • a cut may activate this.
    • Factor 12
    • Factor 11
    • Factor 9
    • Fator 8 (antihemophilic Factor)
    • Factor 10
    • Prothrombin
    • Thrombin
    • Fibrinogen
    • Fibrin
    • Factor 13 (makes the clot)
  51. Explain the Extrinsic Pathway
    • hammer to the hand may start this: Tissue Thromboplastin
    • Factor 7
    • Factor 7 Complex (Ca+, phospholipids...)
    • Factor 10
    • Prothrombin
    • Thrombin
    • Fibrinogen
    • Fibrin
    • Factor 13 (makes Clot)
  52. Where is prothrombin made and what is needed to make it?
    Produced in the liver. You need Vit. K to make it which can be found in green leafy veggies.
  53. Name 2 clot busters
    • Plasminogen Activator (TPA)
    • Streptokinase
  54. How is clotting prevented on a normal basis?
    There is smooth endothelium and the release of prostacyclin and heparin.
  55. What happens after the clot is formed?
    Fibroblasts move to the area. Plasminogen produces plasmin to lyse the clot.
  56. Name a bleeding disease
  57. What is Thrombocytopenia?
    decrease thrombocytes (platelets)
  58. What is Hemophilia
    Type A hemophilia is a sex-linked inherited disorder. The person can't produce factor 8. In turn the person can do the extrinsic pathway for clotting but not the intrinsic.
  59. What is it called when a person has a Vit K deficiency and liver disease?
    Decreased prothrombin
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