psy 407 exam 3

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psy 407 exam 3
2012-04-23 20:06:15
psy 407 lifespan

Exam 3 review sheet
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  1. Hypothalamus
    The brain structure that regulates motivated behavior (such as eating and drinking) and homeostasis
  2. Pituitary
    Located in the brain, the gland that secretes growth hormone and influences the secretion of hormones by other endocrine glands
  3. Adrenal glands
    Glands that produce many hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephine.
  4. HPA axis
    hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, A system within the body that responds to stress by stimulating or inhibiting the release of various hormones
  5. GnHR
    Its secretion at the onset of puberty triggers sexual development, and from then on it is essential for normal sexual physiology in both males and females
  6. Gonads
    The gonad is the organ that makes gametes. The gonads in males are the testes and the gonads in females are the ovaries.
  7. Estrogen
    The female sex hormone, produced by the ovaries, that is responsible for the release of eggs from the ovaries as well as for the development and maintenance of female reproductive structures and secondary sex characteristics.
  8. Testosterone
    The male sex hormone, secreted by the testes, that stimulates production of sperm and is also responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics.
  9. Menarch
    The onset of menstruation.
  10. Spermarche
    The first ejaculatory experience of boys
  11. Primary sexual characteristics
    Primary characteristics involve the organs for reproduction. Males have testicles, females uterus.
  12. Secondary sexual characteristics
    Secondary characteristics involve traits characterized by hormonal changes such as the differences due to puberty. Examples include breasts, facial hair, the growth of pubic hair and underarm hair.
  13. When does puberty start on average for boys and girls (see table 14.1)
  14. What affects the timing of puberty?
    Genes, gender, body fat and stressors (parents divorces, low ses, etc.)
  15. What effect does stress have on the timing of puberty?
    Starts it earlier
  16. What is the median age of menarche?
  17. Does the timing of puberty matter? How does that differ for boys and girls?
    • Boys: associate more with older boys or embarrassed if they start late
    • Girls: poor body image, older boyfriends, associating with older adolescents.
  18. Formal operational thought
    Hypothetical-deductive thought
  19. Inductive reasoning
    Specific to general principle
  20. Deductive reasoning
    general principle to specific
  21. How does the ability to think abstractly change in adolescence? (Understand hypothetical thought)
    They are able to think more abstractly
  22. Sexual identity
    a way which a person describes himself or herself as being a man or a woman, socially and biologically
  23. What is meant by adolescent egocentrism?
    belief that others are highly attentive to their behavior and appearance
  24. Invincibility
    young people feel that they will never fall victim, as others do, to dangerous behavior
  25. Fable
    the idea that many teenagers believe that they are the only ones who are capable of feeling the way that they do
  26. Imaginary audience
    the idea that most adolescents believe that there is some audience that is constantly present that is overly interested in what the individual has to say or do
  27. Intuitive thought
    Relying on intuition
  28. Analytic thought
    Formal, logical, hypothetical, and abstract
  29. Identity (and four aspects of it laid out by Erikson)
    Religious identity, sexual or gender identity, political or ethnic identity, and vocational identity
  30. Identity vs. diffusion
    Who am I? Identity is cosnisten definition of one's self as a unique individual.
  31. How do relationships with their parents change during adolescence? What is the importance of parental monitoring?
    It helps limit alcohol, drug, and weapon use.
  32. peer facilitation
    indirect and pervasive, a group phenomenon rather than one individual leading another stray
  33. deviancy training
    Deviancy training refers to the interactions among deviant peers that perpetuate and intensify behavior problems and anti-social conduct.
  34. peer selection
    how peers are chosen, process
  35. peer pressure
    social pressure to conform with one's friends in behavior, dress, and attitude
  36. rates of sexual intercourse in high school years, (figure 14.6)
    1/4 by age 14, 1/2 by graduation
  37. trend in teen births
  38. What is role of parents in affecting teen sexual behavior?
    They should be the main informant
  39. What about brain development in adolescence leave them drawn to intense experiences such as drug use?
    Don't consider consequences, intuitive thought, coping mechanism
  40. How have the rates of drug use changed over the past 25 years?
    They are the same, if not lower
  41. Senescence
    The gradual decline of physical capacities
  42. Homeostasis
    Internal state of balance
  43. Organ reserve
    • The extra capacity of the internal organs and muscles that the body uses to adjust to stress or extreme conditions
    • How do the rates of drugs addiction and abuse change in adulthood (see p. 463)?
  44. Dialectical thought (thesis, antithesis, and synthesis)
    • The thesis is an intellectual proposition.
    • The antithesis is simply the negation of the thesis, a reaction to the proposition.
    • The synthesis solves the conflict between the thesis and antithesis by reconciling their common truths, and forming a new proposition.
  45. What are Erikson's stages are covered during adolescence and emerging adulthood? Know crises at play during each stage.
    Identity vs. diffusion and intimacy vs. isolation
  46. Understand each of Marcia's identity statuses and be able to recognize and generate examples of each.
    • Foreclosure. These people have made commitments to an occupational future, but have not experienced an identity crisis. They have conformed to the expectations of others concerning their future. For example, an individual may have allowed a parent to decide what career they will pursue. These individuals have not explored a range of options (experience an "identity crisis").
    • Diffusion. The young person has not made a commitment, and may or may not have experienced an identity crisis. He or she appears to have given up any attempt to make the commitments needed for developing a clear sense of identity as Marcia defines the term.
    • Moratorium. Individuals in moratorium are actively exploring alternative commitments, but have not yet made a decision. They are experiencing an identity crisis, but appear to be moving forward toward identity formation, making commitments.
    • Achievement. The individual has experienced an identity crisis and has made commitments necessary for building a sense of identity as described above.
  47. How do we make friends according to Fehr, 1996? (p.504)
    Physical attractiveness, apparent availability, frequent exposure, absences of exclusion criteria
  48. Understand that risk taking is more common in emerging adulthood.
    Invincibility, fable, intuitive thought are some reasons
  49. Social exchange theory
    Proposes that social behavior is the result of an exchange process. The purpose of this exchange is to maximize benefits and minimize costs. People weigh the potential benefits and risks of social relationships. When the risks outweigh the rewards, people will terminate or abandon that relationship.
  50. Social clock
    The idea that each society has standards concerning the appropriate age for particular behaviors and accomplishments
  51. Cohabitation: does the evidence suggest cohabitating before marriage decreases divorce rate?
    No, it's the opposite
  52. Among emerging adults, what is the prevailing attitude about the acceptability of premarital sex?
    That it is okay
  53. What are differences between male friendships and female friendships?
    • Men have different kinds of friends "activity friends," such as a weekly tennis partner or drinking buddies; "convenience friends" where the relationship is based on the exchange of favors; and "mentor friends" typically between a younger and an older man
    • Women typically describe their friendships in terms of closeness and emotional attachment. What characterizes friendships between women is the willingness to share important feelings, thoughts, experiences, and support. Women devote a good deal of time and intensity of involvement to friends.
  54. What activities comprise each and what do they expect from friends when sharing emotional and relationship difficulties? (remember differences are average differences, there is a lot similarity as well. (p. 505.)
    although men rate their friendship as less intimate than do women, at least in terms of self-disclosure and emotional expressiveness, men's friendships nevertheless serve to buffer stress and reduce depression in the same way that women's friendships do. When men do achieve a high level of intimacy with other men, they usually follow a different path than women, one that emphasizes activities and companionship over self-disclosure and emotional expressiveness.
  55. According to research covered in your text (p. 453), during what time of life are both men and women most attractive?
    Emerging adulthood
  56. According to lecture, why does emerging adulthood exist in developed countries but not undeveloped countries?
    In undeveloped countries, adolescents have to go straight to adulthood for the sake of their family.