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What is the difference b/w imagination and knowledge?
- Imagination creates hypothesis, expands on knowledge, new concepts/ ideas, not limited, not right or wrong, has no boundaries, able to think outside the box.
- Knowledge is limited to what we know, interpret data/info, starting point, skills/test hypothesis, basic, standard guide of imagination, not everyone has access to knowledge
What are 5 characteristics of research?
- 1) systematic- problems, methods, data, analysis
- 2) logical- others can evaluate conclusions drawn
- 3) empirical- conclusions based on data (motivated by winning)
- 4) Reductive- data used to establish general relationships
- 5) Replicable- research process is recorded and others can repeat/ build on that research
3 strengths of poetic transcription - visual emotion, lasting memory
- 1) inherent- complex, reaches beyond academia
- 2) structural- sensory activation, visual barrier reduction
- 3) contents- individual voices, mulitple interpretations
Difference b/w quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods
- Quantitative- exploring and understanding meanings attributed by groups, mulitple interpretations, no variable
- Qualitative- describes status on variables, measurements, stats
- Mixed Methods- combines both forms, which will be dominant
Describe the 4 philosophical worldviews
- 1) Postpositivism- based on a single reality, or truth, quantitative (surveys)
- 2) Constructivism- based on multiple realities, truths, meanings, qualitative
- 3) Participitory- idea that research needs to be connected with politics, qualitative
- 4) Pragmatism- based on idea that research needs to be concerned with what works (solutions to problems)
Why are stats important to research?
They inform us about reliability and meaningfulness
Describe mean, mode, and median
- Mean- average
- Mode- most frequent number
- Median- the middle number
Name the 9 steps in ethical decision making
- 1) Ethical sensitivity- know who will be affected
- 2) Consult the code of ethics- as guidance
- 3) Search ethical limitations- text, journals
- 4) Self-awareness- bias, financial costs
- 5) Apply ethical principles (autonomy, beneficence)
- 6) Develop alternative courses of action (costs)
- 7) Consult with colleagues
- 8) Action (inform people)
- 9) Evaluate results of actions
What are the ethical principles?
- Autonomy- free choice, own decisions
- Beneficience- act for the benefit of others
- Nonmaleficence- no harm towards others
- Justice- fair, equal
- Fidelity- fulfill trust
- Veracity- truthfullness
What are the 5 focal virtues?
- Compassion- others suffering
- Conscientiousness- act what is right
- Discernment- fitting judgements without influence by factors
- Integrity- knowing ones personal ideas
- Trustworthiness- confidence in ones character
How many hours of exercise should children and adults recieve a week?
- Children 5-17
- - 60 min moderate to vigorous activity a DAY
- Adults 18-64
- - 150 min moderate to vigorous acitivity a WEEK
What are the 3 levels of interventions and provide examples
- Downstream- change people who have already been affected
- (smokers to quit smoking) lifestyle modification
- affects individuals
- Midstream- targets large groups that are at risk (changing health damage) community based interventions for prevention, gym or workplace
- Upstream- targets large amounts of people, laws that are put in by the environment, take junk food out of schools
What is Rose's Prevention Paradox?
- Contrasts concequences of focusing on individuals versus populations, may not benefit but prevents (seatbelts)
- FOCUSES on population.
What is the high-risk strategy?
produces interventions for INDIVIDUALS, avoids those who arent at risk.
What is Population Strategy?
Public health oriented, small benefits to each individual, major changes to economic society, effects are large
Describe PAM massages.
evidence based recommendations about how much physical activity helps health, nothing about how or why to be active but guidelines are the goal, not intended to motivate the individuals.
Describe PAM messaging.
Motivates individuals to be active regularly, message across.
What are 4 ways to enhance physical activity messaging?
- 1) certain message qualities (novel, vivid, salient)
- 2) create relevance (tailoring, targeting)
- 3) choose appropriate message framing (deflated soccerball)
- 4) create accessible messages (health literacy requirements)
What is gain-framed messages?
Gain framed emphasizes the BENEFITS of being active
What is loss-framed messages?
Emphasize the costs of being inactive.
What are the 2 media literacy options?
- 1) individual level- media literacy training, and cognitive behavioural therapy
- 2) societal level- men and women as group body images
What is social psychology?
Study of how people influence each other, and other factors that affect social behaviour.
What are 3 historical perspectives that social psychology progressed (PEA)
- 1) social philosophy- causes of social behaviour, introspection and retrospection, no systematic observations.
- 2) social empiricism- parallel growth of natural sciences, systematic data, guided by speculation
- 3) social analysis- avoids grand principles, theory development, understanding of social behaviour.
What are the 3 general theories
- 1) PSYCHOANALYSIS- personality development, man is a striving man, super ego.
- 2) BEHAVIOUR- persons environment in determining behaviour, cannot be tested
- 3) COGNITIVE- verbal behaviour, perception (mind)
What is an independent variable?
variable you have control over, length of time participant was deprived of sleep.
What is an dependent variable?
variable you have control over, they have effect on independent variable
Research as experimental vs non-experimental
- 1) Experimental-answer cause-effect questions, independent variable has direct influence on another dependent variable
- 2) Non- experimental- do not follow cause/effect, 2 variables are related, expiremental studies not possible.
Who was the first teacher to exerience the memroy examination/ obedience to authority to reach max volts and when?
Triplett did what?
Sport-1st specific experiment for Social Facilitation Theory in 1890
What did Sherif do?
In 1950, psychological understanding of groups.
What are the 5 Social Powers?
- 1) legitimate- ones role that gives them the right to demand the rules
- 2) expert- subcoordinates assumption that powerholder possesses superior skill/abilities
- 3) reward- control over the distribution of rewards given to individuals
- 4) coercive- ability to punish others who dont comply with demands (run 10 laps for being late_
- 5) referent- ones indentification with respect for the powerholder.
What are the forms of social support? (IIVEC)
- 1) Instrumental- assistance will help person achieve goal
- 2) Emotional- encouragement, caring, increase self-esteem
- 3) Informational- giving directions, advise progress
- 4) Companionship- availability of person within ones social network (friend to exercise with)
- 5) Validation- comparing ones self with others in order to gauge progress and confirm ones thoughts or feelings (people with heart disease exercise with people with heart disease)
What is the difference b/w social power and social support?
- Social Power= pressuring, rewards in exercising
- Social Support= increases exercise intentions
3 components of motivation
- 1) direction
- 2) intensity
- 3) persistence
What is the difference b/w extrinsic and intrinsic?
- Intrinsic= powerful motivator
- Extrinsic= extensive in sport, attain outcomes/awards
What are 3 views of motivation?
- 1) Behavioural
- a) operant
- b) vicarious
- c) operant
- 2) Cognitive- thought patterns and causes of behaviours
- a) Self-determination Theory
- b) Attribution Theory- locus of control
- c) Social Cognitive Theory- factors that affect behaviour
- 3) Cognitive Behavioural Theory
- a) Cognitions influence emotions
- b) behaviour effects thoughts
- (Goal setting, smart principles, feedback)
What is Hollanders structure of personality?
- 1) Personality Core- developed early from environmental interactions (INSIDE)
- 2) Typical Responses- predictable behaviour and how we respond to environment (MIDDLE)
- 3) Role-Related Responses- variable behaviours, influenced by preception of changing context (OUTSIDE)
What is Sheldon's Constitutional Theory?
- Ectomorph= tall, lean, CEREBROTONIA personality, tense, socially restrained
- Endomorph= roundness, fat, VISCEROTONIA PERSONALITY, affectionate, sociable, relaxed, cheerful
- Mesomorph= muscular, SOMATOTONIC personality, adventorous, risk tasking, agressive.
What is Eysenck's PEN personality theory?
- P-sychoticism- superego, agressiveness
- E-xtraversion- base level arousal
- N-euroticism- stability (high neuroticl individual-longer lasting)
What is the Big 5 Personality Theory? (OCEAN)
- O-penness to experience (curious)
- E-xtraversion (energetic approach, determined)
- A-greeableness (compliance)
- N-euroticism (feelings of tension, nervousness)