Soc: 15 The Politics

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songcuana
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14972
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Soc: 15 The Politics
Updated:
2010-04-17 21:05:56
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politics
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Chap 15 outline: Micropolitics and Macropolitics, Power, Authority, and Violence, Types of Government, The U.S. Political System, Who Rules the United States, War and Terrorism: Implementing Political Objectives, A New World Order?, SUmmary and Review.
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  1. politics
    the exercise of power and attempts to maintain or to change power relations.
  2. power
    the ability to carry out your will, even over the resistance of others.
  3. micropolitics
    the exercise of power in everyday life, such as deciding who is going to do the housework or use the remote control.
  4. macropolitics
    the exercise of large-scale power, the government being the most common example.
  5. authority
    power that people consider legitimate, as rightly exercised over them; also called "legitimate power."
  6. coercion
    power that people do not accept as rightly exercised over them; also called "legitimate power."
  7. state
    a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory; commonly known as a country.
  8. revolution
    armed resistance designed to overthrow and replace a government.
  9. traditional authority
    authority based on custom.
  10. rational-legal authority
    authority based on law or written rules and regulations; also called "bureaucratic authority."
  11. charismatic authority
    authority based on an individual's outstanding traits, which attract followers.
  12. routinization of charisma
    the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or a rational-legal form a authority.
  13. city-state
    an independent city whose power radiates outward, bringing the adjacent area under its rule.
  14. monarchy
    a form of government headed by a king or queen.
  15. democracy
    a system of government in which authority derives from the people; the term comes from two Greek words that translate literally as "power to the people."
  16. direct democracy
    a form of democracy in which the eligible voters meet together to discuss issues and make their decisions.
  17. representative democracy
    a form of democracy in which voters elect representatives to meet together to discuss issues and make decisions on their behalf.
  18. citizenship
    the concept that birth (and residence) in a country impart basic rights.
  19. universal citizenship
    the idea that everyone has the same basic rights by virtue of being born in a country (or by immigrating and becoming a naturalized citizen).
  20. dictatorship
    a form of government in which an individual has seized power.
  21. oligrachy
    a form of government in which a small group of individuals holds power; the rule of the many by the few.
  22. totalitarianism
    a form of government that exerts almost total control over people.
  23. proportional representation
    an electoral system in which seats in a legislature are divided according to the proportion of votes that each political party receives.
  24. noncentrist party
    a political party that represents less central (or popular) ideas.
  25. centrist party
    a political party that represents the center of political opinion.
  26. coalition government
    a government in which a country's largest party aligns itself with one or more smaller parties.
  27. voter apathy
    indifference and inaction on the part of individuals or groups with respect to the political process.
  28. special-interest group
    a group of people who support a particular issue and who can be mobilized for political action.
  29. lobbyists
    people who influence legislation on behalf of their clients.
  30. political action committee (PAC)
    an organization formed by one or more special-interest groups to solicit and spend funds for the purpose of influencing legislation.
  31. anarchy
    a condition of lawlessness or political disorder cause by the absence or collapse of governmental authority.
  32. pluralism
    the diffusion of power among many interest groups that prevents any single group from gaining control of the government.
  33. checks and balances
    the separation of powers among the three branches of U.S. government--legislative, executive, and judicial--so that each is able to nullify the actions of the other two, thus preventing the domination of any single branch.
  34. power elite
    C. Wright Mills' term for the top people in U.S. corporations, military, and politics who make the nation's major decisions.
  35. ruling class
    another term for the power elite.
  36. war
    armed conflict between nations or politically distinct groups.
  37. dehumanization
    the act or process of reducing people to objects that do not deserve that treatment accorded humans.
  38. terrorism
    the use of violence or the threat of violence to produce fear in order to attain political objectives.
  39. nationalism
    a strong identification with a nation, accompanied by the desire for that nation to be dominant.

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