D.P. Chp 10

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mse263
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149727
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D.P. Chp 10
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2012-05-01 00:15:41
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Emotional Development
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  1. Emotional Intelligence is shown in:
    • –  motivating oneself and persisting
    • –  controling impulses & delaying gratification
    • –  understaing one's own & others' feelings
    • –  one's moods
    • –  expression of emotion in social interactions
    • –  empathize with others' emotions

    - is a better predictor of intelligence than IQ
  2. emotion
    motivational force or action tendency & changes in physiology, feelings, and behavior
  3. two main theories on the nature/emergence of emotion:
    • 1) discrete emotions theory
    • 2) the functionalist approach

    -research supports both perspectives to some degree; no one theory has emerged as definitive
  4. 1) Discrete Emotions Theory
    –  emotions are innate & discrete; each emotion occurs in conjuctions w/ specific set of reactions

    • -assumes that there are 7-10 core emotions: happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust, contempt, and fear
    • -theory states that said emotions are biological emotional responses across cultures
    • -also repetitive emotional experiences during childhood result in traits & biases that govern interpersonal relationships during adulthood
  5. 2) The Functionalist Approach
    • •  emphasizes environment's effects on emotional development
    • •  emotions function as a means of promoting action to achieve a goal
    • •  emotions are not discrete from one another; they vary
  6. Positive Emotions: Smiling
    • • 6 to 7 weeks: social smiling occurs
    • • 7 months: bebe smiles at people in general
    • •  3/4 months: bebe smiles & laughs during a variety of activities
    • •  2 y/o: clown around & are delighted when they can make other people laugh
  7. Negative Emotions
    • generalized distress: 1st negative emotion
    • •  2 months: facial expressions of anger or sadness can be
    • differentiated from distress/pain
    • •  2 y/o: EASY to differente between infants' anger and other negative emotions
  8. Distress
    • •  sometimes infants show negative emotions that don't fit with the situation at hand
    • •  undifferentiated distress occurs in the place of ANY negative emotion
    • •  anger & distress/pain are not differentiated in most contexts
  9. Fear
    • •  emerges at 6 or 7 months
    • •  children are afraid of strangers until ~ 2 y/o
    • •  ~7 months: fear other things; irrational ones tend to decline after 12 months

    • -can be different for different children (ex, children who grew up with dogs)
  10. Separation Anxiety
    • •  distress that children (esp. infants and toddlers) experience when they are separated from primary caregivers
    • •  is a salient and important type of fear
    • •  increases from 8 to 13/15 months & then declines
    • -chinese bebes cry more
  11. Self-Conscious Emotions
    exs: guilt, shame, embarrassment, pride

    • •  emerge at 2 y/o
    • • at ~15-24 months children show embarrassment when they're the center of attention
    • • at ~3 y/o children's pride is tied to how well they do something

    -there are cross-cultural differences
  12. Guilt/Shame
    •guilt: empathy for others; feelings of remorse; regret & desire to make amends
  13. •whether children experience guilt or shame depends on parental practices
  14. Normal Emotional Development in Childhood come from:
    • • acceptance by peers and achieving goals as important sources of happiness and pride
    • • school-age children's related to real-life important issues
    • • early school years, children's perceptions of others' motives and intentions determine anger
    • • people should get less intense and less emotionally negative with age
  15. adolescence is a time of:
    • -greater negative emotions
    • -incidences of depression increase
  16. Depression in Adolescence
    • • less than 3% of children are clinically depression before to adolescence
    • • 15% (or higher) of 15-18 y/o's are clinically depressed
    • - it's frequently paired with behavior problems

    • - can be caused by: genetic factors, maladaptive belief symptoms, feelings of powerlessness, negative beliefs/ self-perceptions, family factors or lack of social skills
    • - often is a combination of personal vulnerability & external stressful factors
  17. Gender & Depression
    • • girls show higher rates of clinical depression than do boys
    • – stem from concerns about body image, early puberty,
    • worries about peer acceptance
  18. The Development of Emotional Regulation
    • • initiating, inhibiting, or modulating internal feeling states, physiological processes, cognitions or behaviors
    • • its emergence is a long, slow process
  19. Shift from Caregiver Regulation to Self-Regulation
    • • 1st months: parents help regulate mostly
    • • 6 months: averting their gaze sometimes by self-soothing
    • • 1-2 y/o: infants turn attention to non-distressing objects or people to distract themselves

    • • later, children rely on themselves to delay gratification
    • - use language to: 1) manage emotional arousal & 2) regulate expression of negative emotions

    • • self-regulation improves b/c of: maturation of nervous system, as well as:
    • - adults' expectations of children increase
    • - improvement in ability to inhibit motor behavior (due to increased age)
  20. Older Children:
    • - employ cognitive strategies to control negative emotions
    • - younger children mostly use behavioral strategies (to control negative emotions)
    • - better cognitive coping mechanisms develop with age to deal with emotionally difficult situations
  21. Children Select Appropriate Regulatory Strategies By:
    • • knowing the difference between stressors that can be controlled and those that cannot be
    • • choosing the most effective strategies
  22. social competence
    the ability to achieve personal goals from social interactions
  23. temperament
    • individual differences in emotional, motor, attentional reactivity and self-regulation
  24. • consistency across situations & relative stability over time
  25. infant temperament
    • - Stella Chess & Alexander Thomas: did longitudinal research on infant temperament; found:
    • • easy babies (40%): adjusted readily to new experiences
    • • difficult babies (10%): slow to adjust to new experiences
    • • slow-to-warm-up babies (15%): somewhat difficult at 1st; became easier over time

    • • contemporary psychologists:
    • –assess positive and negative emotion as separate components of temperament
    • –differentiate among types of negative emotionality
    • –assess different types of regulatory capacity

    • • recent research indicates 6 dimensions of temperament:
    • 1) fearful distress
    • 2) irritable distress
    • 3) attention span and persistence
    • 4) activity level
    • 5) positive affect
    • 6) rhythmicity
  26. Temperament Stabilizes Over Time
    • behavioral inhibition in infancy: there's a tendency to be fearful and restrained when dealing with novel or stressful situations
    • • fear in novel situations at 2 y/o, but there are elevated levels of social inhibition at age 4.5
    • • some aspects of temperament = more stable than others
  27. temperament and social adjustment in childhood affects behavior later in life:
    • • negative, impulsive, and unregulated young children had
    • more problems as young adults with adjustment
    • - temperaments are associated with problems of adjustment

    • – goodness of fit: how children’s temperament fits with the demands/expectations of the environment
    • – child's temperament and parents' socialization efforts affect each other over time

    • temperament can be measured using: a parent or adult report, lab observations, or physiological measures (heartrate, EEG, cortisol levels)
  28. personality
    • behavioral & emotional propensities, beliefs and interests, and intellectual capacities; wrapped up with:
    • • a person's temperament & interactions with the social and physical world
    • • children's relationships with their parents & their parents' socialization practices
  29. Quality of Child's Relationships w/ Parents
    • • leads to a sense of security & determines how they feel about themselves & other people
    • -shapes a child's: emotionality, understanding of emotion, emotional self-regulation, & emotional responses to people/events in the world
  30. Socialization
    • how individuals (through experience w/ others) develop skills & ways of thinking/feeling, as well as standards
    • and values

    • - is how people adapt to a group & live w/ others
    • - socialization occurs with: parents, teachers, & other adults as well as other children, the media, & social institutions
  31. Parents' Expression of Emotion
    • • the emotions to which children are exposed can affect their level of distress & arousal
    • • influences children's views about themselves & others in the social world
    • • children conversly influence the expression of
    • emotion in the home
  32. parents' reactions to children's emotions
    • • dismissing/criticizing children’s feelings tell them their feelings aren't valid
    • • these children become less emotionally & socially
    • competent than children w/ emotionally supportive parents
  33. The Role of Culture in Expressing Emotions
    •cultures promote or discourage specific emotions to differing degrees; these differences are often reflected in parents' socialization of emotion
  34. Childrens' Ability to Identify Others' Emotions
    • • 1st step in the development of emotional knowledge = the recognition of emotions in others
    • – 4 to 7 months: infants can distinguish emotional
    • expressions, ex. happiness & surprise
    • – 8 to 12 months: children demonstrate social referencing (?)
    • – 3 y/o: children can identify a narrow range of emotions
  35. when identifying the emotions of others, children:
    • • are best at labeling happiness
    • • expressing different negative emotions is easiest to differentiate betwee in late preschool/early school years
    • • fail to express more complex emotions until early-to-mid-elementary school
    • • respond appropriately to their own/others' emotions if they can discriminate and label different emotions
  36. Causes & Dynamics of Emotions
    • • at 2 y/o, children can identify happy situations in stories; can also mention emotions in appropriate ways in everyday discussions
    • • not until 4 y/o can children identify sad situations
    • • children get more skilled at explaining causes of emotion during preschool & school years
  37. Children's Understanding of Real & False Emotions
    • • understanding of the difference between real and
    • false emotions improves from age 3 to 5
    • • over the preschool and elementary school years, children develop more refined understanding of emotional display rules
  38. Display Rules
    • • children in 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 10th grade listened to stories that were supposed to elicit display rules
    • • then they were asked to predict and explain what the story protagonists would say & what facial expressions the protagonists would make in emotion-laden situations
    • • children's knowledge of how and when to control emotional displays increased between grades 1-5 and then leveled off after that
  39. personality
    the pattern of emotional and behavioral tendencies, beliefs & interests, and intellectual capabilities that characterize an individual

    -it has its roots in temperament but is shaped by the environment
  40. self-conscious emotions
    emotions that relate to an individual's sense of self and an awareness of others' reactions

    -happiness, anger and saddness are NOT examples of self-conscious emotions
  41. goodness of fit
    the degree to which an individual's temperament is suited to their particular environment

    - even a child with a difficult temperament can thrive if the environement is satisfactory in terms of its 'goodness of fit'
  42. discrete emotions theory
    the view that emotions are distinct from one another and are evident from early in life

    -researchers holding this view would disagree with the statement 'infants only experience excitement and distress, and the must learn how to express these emotions'
  43. social referencing
    infants' use of a caregiver's facial or vocal cues to interpret a novel or ambigous situation

    -when infants begin to do this at about 8-12 months of age, it is an indication that they can relate to each others' emotional expression to events in the environment
  44. temperament
    differences in aspects of emotional, motor, and attention reactivity and self-regulatoion that are apparent from early in life

    -children who have a high activity level, intense reactions to negative stimuli, & are not easily distracted differ in temperament from children who are generally cheerful/easy to calm
  45. emotion
    characterized by a motivational force, subjective experience, change in physiology, & cognitions

    -theorists disagree about the extent to which emotions involve cognition as well as whether the experience of this is entirely innate or partially learned
  46. socialization
    the indirect and direct influence of parents, teachers, and other aspects of the environment on children's standards, values, and ways of thinking/feeling

    -parents' expression of emotion with their children and parents' reactions to their children's emotional expression are two examples of how parents accomplish socialization
  47. behavioral inhibition
    a dimension of temperament that involves fearful distress, particularly in novel situations

    -infants who are high in this tend to be less social and less positive at 4 y/o
  48. separation anxiety
    feelings of distress that infants experience when separated from an attachment figure

    - a child who crawls AWAY from his caregiver is probably less likely to experience this than a child whose caregiver leaves the room
  49. social competence
    the ability to achieve one's goals in social situations while maintaining positive relations with others

    -children with this are good at regulating their emotions, tend to use cognitive methods to control emotions, & tend to be able to delay gratification
  50. display rules
    a social group's informal norms about when, where and how much one should show emotions

    -examples include: those with a prosocial motive, when one doesn't want to hurt another's feelings, and those with a self-protective motive, when one doesn't want to look bad in front of others
  51. emotional intelligence
    a set of abilities that are key to competent social functioning

    - this predicts how well individuals do in life to a GREATER extent than IQ does
  52. emotional self-regulation
    the process of controlling one's emotions, including the associated subjective feelings, physiological processes, behaviors and cognitions

    -young children who must rely on caregivers to settle them down have not fully developed emotional self-regulation
  53. social smiles
    smiles that are directed at people

    -these emerge as early as 6-7 weeks of age & do NOT refer to happiness experienced as a result of being able to control an object
  54. functionalist approach
    the view that the purpose of emotions is to promote action toward a goal

    -functionalist researchers holding this view would point to the association between anger and an individual's movement to eliminate obstacles
  55. young infants tend to smile at:
    • people! interesting objects! when they can control an event!
    • EVERYTHING?!?!?!!?
  56. Thomas & Chess labeled babies who were generally cheerful, who adjusted to new situations wihtout much trouble, & who were regular in their routines AS:
    • EASY
    • (peasy pumpkin squeezy)
  57. children high in fearful distress, particularly in novel or stressful situations, are considered to be:
    behaviorally inhibited
  58. at 9 months, an infant who has habituated to pictures of happy people but is then presented a picture of an angry person can:
    DISHABITUATE to the new picture AND comprehend the emotional meaning of the facial expressions

    -NINE MONTHS
  59. social referencing inolves infants':
    both EMOTIONAL and BEHAVIORAL responses to ambiguous events
  60. this is NOT an example of the use of a display rule:
    ex: Ross is excited about making a mess in his playroom but gets upset when his mother comes in the room and gets aNGRY
  61. this display of a child's emotions is the MOST difficult for other children to understand:
    Mia, who feels disappointment at getting a sweater for her birthday, but who puts on a happy face anyway

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