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2012-04-24 01:01:10
History Theory Graphic Design Final

History and Theory of Graphic Design Final
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  1. What typeface is this?

  2. What typeface is this?

    Egyptian: This typeface is also called “Antique” or “Slab Serif”. It is characterized by its thick, block-like (slab-like) serifs and even stroke weight, with short ascenders and descenders.
  3. What typeface is this?

    Futura: This is a geometric sans-serif typeface. It is characterized by its simple geometric shapes (near-perfect circles, triangles and squares) and its nearly-even weighted strokes. This is most noticeable in it’s almost perfectly round stroke of the “o”.
  4. What typeface is this?

    Helvetica: This is a sans-serif typeface with very evenly weighted strokes. It is characterized by a two-storied “a” (with curves of bowl and of stem), narrow “t” and “f”, square-looking “s”, bracketed top serif of “1”, and rounded off square tail of “R”.
  5. What typeface is this?

    Old Style: This typeface has a greater difference between thick and thin strokes. It is sharper in appearance. Its serifs on ascenders are more wedge shaped.
  6. What typeface is this?

    Modern: This typeface has extreme differences between thick and thin strokes. It is characterized by its vertical stress, long and fine serifs, and minimal brackets.
  7. What typeface is this?

    Optima: This typeface combines features of both serif and sans-serif into one humanistic design. It is characterized by a subtle swelling at the ends of the letters that suggests a glyphic serif and rounded base of “v” and “w”.
  8. What typeface is this?

    Tuscan: This typeface is highly variable in form. It has extended serifs and curves. It is characterized by its unique bulges, cavities, and ornaments.
  9. What typeface is this?

    Verdana: This is a humanist sans-serif typeface. It is characterized by its lack of serifs, large x-height, wide proportions, loose letter-spacing, large counters, and emphasized distinctions between similarly-shaped characters to increase legibility.
  10. What are the characteristics of an Artifact?
    Objects that are made by hand, used by hand, and powered my muscle. (i.e. a carved wooden spoon)
  11. What are the characteristics of a Machine?
    They are complex, precisely proportioned artifacts with many integral moving parts that have tapped some non-human, non-animal source. (i.e. steam engine)
  12. What are the characteristics of a Product?
    They are widely distributed, commercially available objects, anonymously and uniformly manufactured in massive quantities, using a planned division of labor, rapid, non-artisanal, assembly-line techniques, operating over continental economies of scale, and supported by highly reliable transportation, finance and information systems. (i.e. factory manufactured clothes)
  13. What are the characteristics of a Gizmo?
    They are highly unstable, user-alterable, baroquely manufactured objects, commonly programmable, with a brief lifespan. They offer functionality so plentiful that it is cheaper to import feature into the object than it is to simplify it. They are commonly linked to network service providers; they are not stand alone objects but interfaces. (i.e. an iphone)
  14. What are the characteristics of a SPIME?
    First, the term SPIME is created from two words; the “SP” from the word space and the “IME” from the word time. They are manufactured objects whose informational support is so overwhelmingly extensive and rich that they are regarded as material instantiations of an immaterial system. They begin and end as data. They are designed on screens, fabricated by digital means, and precisely tracked through space and time. (I like to think that an example of a SPIME would be some sort of cloud-based technology)
  15. What group of people use Artifacts?
    Hunters and Farmers
  16. What group of people use Machines?
  17. What group of people use Products?
  18. What group of people use Gizmos?
  19. What group of people use Spimes?
  20. What is the approximate date of the invention of movable type?
    The world’s first known moveable-type system for printing was created in China around 1040 AD by Bi Sheng (according to wikipedia), 1045 AD by Pi Sheng (according to Meggs).
  21. What period or style is this piece from?

    Gothic: For printing during the Gothic period we look mainly to the German Illustrated Book. These consisted of wood-block printed books and the Gutenberg bibles. These books usually had religious illustrations and textura or black lettering. Nonetheless, this was the beginning of mass produced books. (For more examples of images see Meggs pg. 78-93)
  22. What period or style is this piece from?

    Renaissance: The Renaissance or “re-birth” was marked by the rediscovery of Greek and Roman ideas. It was an increased era of humanism. The printing Renaissance happened in Venice in the mid-late 1400s. The notable printers of this time were Johannes de Spira, Nicolas Jenson, Erhard Ratdolt, Aldus Manutius, and Geoffrey Troy. (For more examples of images see Meggs pg. 94-116)
  23. What period or style is this piece from?

    Victorian/Industrial Revolution: The industrial revolution of 1760-1840 changed not only art but the world in general. However, sand-casting type, steam-powered press, and photography were some of the inventions that affected the artistic world. Sand-casting allowed for a large growth in varying typefaces and the improved presses allowed for quick release of them. Wood-type posters, halftone photographs, and chromolithography were also very popular during this period. (For more examples of images see Meggs pg. 134-166)
  24. What period or style is this piece from?

    Arts and Crafts: An international design movement that flourished between 1860 and 1910. It was largely a reaction against the impoverished state of the decorative arts at the time and the conditions in which they were produced. It stood for traditional craftsmanship using simple forms and often applied medieval, romantic or folk styles of decorations. Many private presses and some art guilds emphasizing handcrafted works popped up during this time, like the Kelmscott press and The Century Guild. (For more examples of images see Meggs pg.167-189)
  25. What period or style is this piece from?

    Art Nouveau: Is an international philosophy and style of art. A reaction to academic art in the 19th century, it was inspired by natural forms and structures, not only in flowers and plants but in curved lines. Art nouveau’s identifying visual quality is an organic plant-like line. Its origins may possibly stem from the increased trade and communication between Asia and Europe that brought the Japanese artwork of Ukiyo-e.(For more examples of images view Meggs pg.190-220)
  26. What period or style is this piece from?

    De Stijl: This period was also known as neoplasticism. It was a Dutch artistic movement that expressed a utopian ideal of purity, spiritual harmony, and order. They sought to purify art by banning naturalistic representation, external values, and subjective expression. They simplified visual compositions to vertical and horizontal and used primary colors. Some of the most recognizable artists from this period were Theo van Doesburg, Piet Mondrian, and Bart van der Leck. (For more examples of images view Meggs pg.299-304)
  27. What period or style is this piece from?

    The New York School: This school (synonymous with abstract expressionist painting) was an informal group of American poets, painters, dancers, and musicians residing in New York City in the 1950s/1960s. They often drew inspiration from Surrealism and experimental art movements of the time. The designs from this period seem to be abstract but commercial at the same time. (For more examples of images see Meggs pg.374-398)
  28. What period or style is this piece from?

    Memphis: The Memphis Group was an Italian design and architecture group started by Ettore Sottsass that designed Post Modern furniture, fabric, ceramics, glass, and metal objects from 1981-1987. Memphis sensibility embraces exaggerated geometric forms in bright colors, bold geometric and organic patterns, often printed on plastic laminates, and allusions to earlier cultures, such as the use of marble and granite for table and chair legs evocative of columns in Greco-Roman architecture. Form no longer follows function. (For more examples of images see Meggs pg.477-480)
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    Final or Terminal
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