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What is the primary function of the cerebral cortex?
Integrates information from other nervous system structures and creates outgoing signals that reflect that integration.
Highly developed in humans
What are the 3 divisions of the brain?
Hindbrain, Midbrain, and Forebrain
What is the function of the Hindbrain?
To coordinate basic reflexes and bodily functions as well as monitor and coordinate body movements
What is the function of the Midbrain?
To process several sensory inputs
What is the function of the Forebrain?
To regulate higher order functions such as cognition
What are the functions of the sympathetic division?
dilate pupils, inhibit salivation, increase heartrate, relax airways, inhibit digestion, inhibit insulin release from the pancreas, inhibit activity of small intestine, relax bladder, stimulate the secretion of hormones from adreanal glands.
What are the functions of the parasympathetic division?
constrict pupils, stimulate salivation, slow heartbeat, constrict airways, stimulate digestion, stimulate insulin secretion, stimulate bladder to contract
What are the two divisions of the autonomic nervous system?
sympathetic and parasympathetic
What is the main function of the sympathetic division?
fight or flight
What is the main function of the parasympathetic division?
rest or digest
What are the two divisions of the peripheral nervous system?
the autonomic and somatic
What is the function of the somatic division?
sense external environment, control skeletal muscle, control voluntary muscle
What is the function of the autonomic division?
regulate homeostasis, sensory neurons detect internal body conditions, it is involuntary
What two parts make up the Nervous System and what are they composed of?
- Central- brain and spinal cord
- Peripheral- all neurons outside of the CNS
What are the functions of the nervous system?
- sensory inputs ( light, smell, touch)
- motor responses (reflexive or voluntary)
- autonomic functions (heartbeat, digestion)
- learning and cognition
What is the function of the left hemisphere?
understanding language and production of speech
What is the function of the right hemisphere?
nonverbal memories, recognizing faces and interpreting emotions
What is the function of the frontal lobe?
What is the main function of the peripheral nervous system?
provide sensory input
What is most highly developed in human brains compared to other mammals?
What part of the brain is most responsible for conscious thought?
What are neurons?
cells that send and receive electrical and chemical signals to and from other neurons or other cells throughout the body
What do glia do?
perform various functions and are more numerous than neurons
What is the cell body of a neuron?
contains the nucleus and the organelles
What are the dendrites of a neuron?
the extension of the plasma membrane and help with incoming signals
What do the axons of neurons do?
send signals and axon terminals convey electrical or chemical messages to other cells
What are sensory neurons?
they detect information from external environment or internal body conditions. they are afferent (send signals to the CNS)
What are motor neurons?
efferent neurons (send signals away from CNS to elicit responses)
What are interneurons?
from interconnections between other neurons to the CNS
The major signaling cell of the nervous system is the...
What is Electrical Membrane Potential?
the cell has a different charge than the outside, and the ion concentrations differ as well
What is resting membrane potential?
when neurons are not sending signals
How do neurons establish differential concentrations of ions inside and outside of the cell?
What are three factors that contribute to resting potential?
sodium potassium pump that transports 3 sodium out for every 2 potassium, ion specific channels that allow passive movement of ions, and negatively charged molecules such as proteins more abundant inside the cell
What does the central nervous system do?
integrates sensory inputs
The part of the brain that is most responsible for conscious thought is the
What is action potential?
always depolarized, actively propegated to carry electrical signal along an axon
What is graded potential?
depolarizes membrane to threshold potential, less negative charge inside the cell and the voltage gated sodium channels open
What is the third step in the action potential sequence?
- Action Potential
- sodium rapidly diffuses into the cell, bringing a positive charge
- more sodium channels open
- then the sodium channels close and the potassium channels then open
What is the fourth stage of the action potential?
- sodium channels close
- potassium channels remain open
- potassium diffuses out of the cell and the membrane is negative
- this all causes hyperpolarization
What is a refactory period?
membrane cannot mount an action potential and the sodium channels are innactive and the potassium channels open
What initiates an action potential?
sodium channels opening
from the peak of an action potential, what is involved in membrane hyperpolarization?
inactivation of the sodium channel and the potassium channel opening
What is myelination?
- oligodendrytes or schwann cells make a myelin sheath which insulate the axon membrane.
- they are not continuous and break at nodes of ranvier
- saltatory conduction- action potential jumps from node to node
What is a synapse?
junction where axon terminal meets another neuron, muscle cell or gland
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