Bio 101 Questions & Answers Final.txt

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Bio 101 Questions & Answers Final.txt
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  1. Genetic Engineering
    • 1. Golden Rice has been genetically engineered to include:
    • - More vitamin A
    • 2. Genetic engineering is:
    • - Human Manipulation of cells/organisms
    • 3. “GMO” stands for:
    • - Genetically Modified Organisms
    • 4. Antisense DNA or RNA is:
    • - DNA or RNA that turns off genes.
    • 5. DNA fingerprinting is used to:
    • - Clear/Convict Rape/Murder Suspects
    • - Test Paternity.
    • 6. Combining DNA from two different sources result in:
    • - Recombinant DNA
    • 7. Which of the following local crops will not be genetically engineered in Hawaii:
    • - Taro
    • 8. Gene guns are used to:
    • - Shoot gold pallets coated with DNA or RNA into cells.
  2. Video: Harvest of Fear
    • 1. In the 1990s on the Big Island, what lethal disease was destroying a major crop?
    • - Papaya ringspot virus
    • 2. Papaya was genetically modified by putting genes from a ___________into it.
    • - Harmless Protein
    • 3. The European Corn Borer is a major pest of corn, which can be controlled with BT toxin made from:
    • - A soil bacteria
    • 4. A University of New Mexico study found that most Americans did not know they had been eating _________ for over five years.
    • - GMO
    • 5. One of the most allergenic foods is:_________.
    • - Peanuts
    • 6. According to the movie, genes from which of the following can be put into plants.
    • - Soybeans, Papaya, Maize (Corn) & Potatoes
    • 7. What genetically modified corn variety was only supposed to be used for animal feed, but turned up in human foods?
    • - Starlink corn
    • 8. New crops are tested for toxicity by feeding them to:
    • - Mice/catepillars
  3. Stem Cell
    • 1. Embryonic stem cells for therapy may be produced by:
    • - A developing embryo
    • * In vitro fertilization
    • * Embryos implanted in uterus
    • * Discarded embryos
    • 2. At what stage of development are embryonic stem cells obtained?
    • - Blastocyst (4-5 day old embryos)
    • 3. Which type of stem cell reside in differentiated cells:
    • - Undifferentiated Adult Stem Cell
    • 4. Before the cell reprogramming break through federal funds could be only be spent on:
    • - Research on Embryonic Stem Cell lines that already exist.
    • 5. Who was the first person to develop human embryonic stem cell lines?
    • - James Thomson
    • 6. Which of the following diseases can be treated using stem cells?
    • - Diabetes, Heart Disease, Cancer, & Parkinson’s Disease
    • 7. How do embryonic stem cells differ from adult stem cells?
    • - Embryonic stem cells can differentiate into any cells in the body & adult stem cells is only able to mature in specialized tissue cells.
    • 8. Which of the following are types of adult stem cells?
    • - Brain, heart, skin, muscle, bone marrow
  4. Evolution of New Species
    • 1. Which of the following is included in the definition of species:
    • - Biological Species Concept (most common).
    • - Ecological Species Concept.
    • - Evolutionary Species Concept.
    • 2. The species concept that species are reproductively isolated is known as:
    • - Biological Species
    • 3. A mule is not a true species because:
    • - Horses and donkeys different species.
    • 4. What is convergent evolution?
    • - The acquisition of the same biological traits in unrelated lineages.
    • 5. What is adaptive radiation?
    • - Development of a variety of species from a founder species.
    • - Species ‘radiated’ to various forms
    • 6. Darwin’s finches are an example of what type of speciation?
    • - Allopatric Speciation
    • 7. Which of the following would be an example of adaptive radiation?
    • - Honeycreepers, Silverswords, Lobelioids, & Land snails
    • 8. Sympatric speciation:
    • - Plants: Species forming at the same place and time.
    • - Animals: Usually occur in small geographical areas
  5. Biological Invasions
    • 1. What is a biological invader?
    • - Invasive species: Alien species that may cause environmental harm by:
    • * Establishing a new home range and reproduce and….
    • * Spread throughout their new home range & persist to become environmentally detrimental.
    • 2. What is a consequence of invasive species on native plant species?
    • - Alien plants compete native plants for resources.
    • - Ecosystem changes over time as alien populations take over,native
    • populations displaced.
    • - As alien populations become larger, they take over larger areas of
    • island.
    • 3. How are ocean’s impacted by invasive species?
    • Changes in biodiversity and distribution of marine
    • organisms along coastlines
    • 4. What are the characteristics of invasive plants?
    • - Propagules (seeds & spores) dispersed by animals, wind or water.
    • * High reproduction. Lots of seeds produced each year.
    • * Rapid growth rate. Maturation reached quickly.
    • * Significant defense mechanisms.
    • 5. Why are invasive species successful in new environments?
    • - Free of predators,competitors, diseases and parasites that limited their populations in natural habitat.
    • - Exploits resources in novel ways (more resources for growth and reproduction).
    • 6. What is a naturalized plant?
    • - An established self perpetuating population. widespread dispersal & incorporation into native flora/ecosystem.
    • 7. Why is Hawaii particularly at risk from biological invaders?
    • - Honolulu is an international, port city.
    • - About 7-9 million tourists visit annually.
    • - Import 80% of consumed goods.
    • 8. What is the most common way alien plants are introduced to Hawaii today?
    • Ornamental Plant Trade
  6. Hawaiian Biodiversity
    • 1. Biodiversity is defined as:
    • - Number & variety of organisms found within an area
    • 2. 75% of Hawaii’s flowering plant species arrived by:
    • - Birds
    • 3. Hawaiian honeycreepers primarily differ by the shape & size of their ____.
    • - Bill (beak)
    • 4. The process whereby many species evolve from a single species is called:
    • - Lobelioids
    • 5. There are about _____ native flowering plant species in Hawai’i and a thousand introduced ones that are now _____.
    • - 980
    • - Naturalized
    • (Double check this)
    • 6. Native habitats in Hawaii have been lost due to:
    • - Croplands
    • - Cattle grazing
    • - Feral animals
    • * Cattle
    • * Pigs
    • * Goats
    • * Sheep
    • * Deer
    • - Urbanization
    • 7. Alien species may be controlled by:
    • - Control of alien species:
    • * Fencing
    • * Biological control
    • * Weeding
    • * Herbicide
    • * Hunting
    • - Habitat Restoration
    • 8. Native species that are only found in Hawaii are ____, while those found elsewhere are ____.
    • - Endemic
    • - Indigenous
  7. World Conservation
    • 1. Why is conservation biology described as “crises discipline?”
    • - Analogous to study of AIDS in epidemiology & requires action taken before all data is in.
    • 2. The Endangered Species Act was created in ____?
    • - 1973
    • 3. Listing species as endangered is based upon _____
    • - Best scientific information, not economics;
    • - Listing critical habitat can be economically based.
    • 4. IUCN stands for:
    • - “International Union for the Conservation of Nature” (established in 1948)
    • 5. Conservation biology is considered a synthetic field because:
    • - It is a mixture of applied and theoretical fields.
    • 6. A species that is likely to become endangered in the near future is called _____?
    • - “Threatened Species”
    • 7. What is the IUCN Red List?
    • - 36% of the world species are threatened for extinction
    • 8. What is likely to become the greatest environmental problem of next century?
    • - Impending water crisis: planet’s capacity to supply fresh water that has been altered.
  8. Human Genetic Diseases
    • 1. How do super bacteria arise?
    • - Overuse of antibodies
    • 2. Why is it hard to treat the common cold?
    • - It’s impossible to make vaccines against all viruses due to rapid mutations.
    • 3. What missing protein leads to diabetes?
    • - Insulin
    • 4. A benign tumor:
    • - Is a non-cancerous tumor
    • 5. Cancer can be caused by which of the following?
    • - Tobacco & Sun Radiation
    • 6. Which of the following mechanism may result in cancer?
    • - Uncontrolled cell division
    • 7. Which of the following are treatment options for cancers?
    • - Surgery, radiation, & chemotherapy
    • 8. Normal genes that inhibit cell division are called?
    • - “Tumor Suppressor Gene”
  9. Ergot of Rye and Its Impact on Society
    • 1. What is Ergot of Rye?
    • - Plant disease which replaces the grain of rye with a dark, purplish sclerotium
    • 2. Linnda Caporael believed that the incidents that led to the Salem witch trial of 1692 was due to:
    • - Symptoms of ergotism
    • - Optimal weather for ergot to grow
    • 3. What is Holy Fire or St. Anthony’s Fire?
    • - The symptoms from consumption of ergot.
    • 4. The acronym LSD stands for:
    • - LysergSaure-Diethylamid
    • 5. Albert Hofmann was:
    • - The first person to synthesize, ingest and learn of
    • the psychedelic effects of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD)
    • 6. MKULTRA was:
    • - Code name for a CIA project of illegal drug testing on
    • humans (LSD)
    • 7. Acid Rock is thought to:
    • - Stimulate one’s LSD experience.
    • 8. LSD had a role in changing society in the following way:
    • - Had a “ripple effect”, one action would lead to another
    • - Used as a recreational drug
    • * Synthesized for concerts and political rallies
    • - Political rallies
    • * Free speech, Women’s rights, Vietnam War
    • -Fashion
    • * Establish own identity
    • - Music
    • * Greater popularity of various music genres through underground FM radio
  10. Video: Strangers in Paradise
    • 1. Biologists tried to attract the rare Kauai o'o by using:
    • - A tape recorder with the bird song
    • 2. The Hawaiian carnivorous caterpillar turned into a____________.
    • - Moth
    • 3. Who won the battle between the ant and the carnivorous caterpillar?
    • - The ant
    • 4. Species extinctions were described in the movie as_______on spaceship Earth.
    • - “Popping rivets”
    • 5. Biologists are pollinating plants on Molokai's sea cliffs because what pollinator had gone extinct:
    • - Moth
    • 6. Of all the scourages of the native Hawaiian rainforest the worst is the:
    • - Ants
    • - Feral Pigs
    • 7. Approximately 80,000 feathers were used to make:
    • - Feather Cloak
    • 8. What percentage of native Hawaiian birds are now extinct?
    • - 70 Percent
  11. Video: An Inconvenient Truth
    • 1. According to the movie the most vulnerable part of the earth is its:
    • - Atmosphere
    • 2. Ice cores from glaciers can be used to determine the ________ at the time the ice was formed
    • - Temperature & amount of Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
    • 3. According to the movie, the ten hottest years on record have occurred during the last________.
    • - 14 Years
    • 4. The melting of the ice caps in the North and South Poles was likened to:
    • - Raise sea levels
    • 5. An increase in global mean temperatures of 5 degrees would result in a _______ increase at the poles
    • - 12 degree
    • 6. If the ice caps in Greenland melted completely, sea level would rise by:
    • - 20 Feet
    • 7. The only two developed countries that have not signed the international treaty to limit carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere are:
    • - The U.S. and Canada
    • 8. In the next 50 years the carbon dioxide concentration of the atmosphere will:
    • - Continually increase

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