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Pathology is defined as the study of ___________.
Disease includes any instance in which there is a change or alteration in _______________ or balance within the systems of the body.
A __________ is a wound or a distinct area in which a pathologic change has taken place. Findings can be suggestive of oral or pharyngeal cancer or of many systemic conditions that may manifest in the oral cavity.
The ____________ component of the examination should include a general assessment of the patient, an assessment of all visible areas of skin, and an assessment of the head and neck.
- examine physically, look for abnormalities.
-look first, then palpate, press the tissue between fingers or against a firm structure such as bone in every area examined, even if there are no visible signs of abnormalities.
when palpating for lymph nodes, findings should be noted are ___________ or hardenin, tenderness, mobility or movability, and, if abnormal, whether one or more nodes are involved.
Another term that is used to describe enlarged, indurated, and sometines tender lymph nodes is ______________.
________________examination is anything near the oral cavity and inside the oral cavity. For instance, lips, and buccal mucosa.
- common place to start is the oropharynx, next maxillary tuberosity on so on so forth.
- look for any abnormalities like color change, texture change.
When recording the description of an abnormality there must be enough detail presented to provide another professional the patient may need to see with enough information to decide whethere the abnormality is resolving or becoming worse. True or False
Some findings will be indicative of very aggressive, __________ or cancerous conditions.
Some findings will indicate relatively _________ or noncancerous and less aggressive conditions.
__________, or found in one area only. The term "focal" can also be used.
__________, or located in most of the tissues in one area. The term "diffuse" is also used sometimes.
If there are multiple lesions, are they distinct and separate or are they ____________ or growing together and becoming one large lesion.
Margins define the extent of the lesion and are either "well defined" or _____________ or "ill-defined" and vague. Ill-defined margins are difficult to determine, and the dental hygienist may not be sure where the lesion ends and where normal tissue begins.
Well defined margins may be "regular". True or False
A flat lesion that is differentiated from the surrounding tissue by color alone is called a _________.
macule (hint: color alone, MAC makeup) also, if it is more than 1 cm it is considered to be a PATCH.
An elevated lesion may be a ________ if it is 1 cm or less and is filled with a clear fluid. If it is larger than 1cm, it would be called a BULLA.
A ________ is a raised lesion that is filled with pus or purulent exudate.
pustule (hint: filled with pus, hence PUS-stule)
A raised lesion with no fluid inside is called a ___________if it is less than 5 mm in diameter; a slightly larger, less than 2 -cm raised lesion is called _________, and anything larger than that is called a _________.
papule,nodule,tumor (hint: no fluid)
If the area is broad, slightly raised, has a flat top, and looks pasted on, it is called a __________.
A growth can be attached to the surrounding tissues by a broad or ________base, or stalk, ____________.
sessile, pedunculated pg13
Depressed lesions can either be _________,which extend through the epithelium into the dermis, or ________, which do not extend through the epithelium. Erosions can also be called abrasions.
Two other terms are used to describe the general direction of growth of a lesion. Exophytic lesions grow outward from the surface of the tissue, and endophytic lesions grow into the surrounding tissues and present as palable masses with or without any noticeable swelling. True or false