Soc.100.2

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Soc.100.2
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2012-04-28 11:33:15
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Final definitions
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David m. newman
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  1. Erving Goffman is known for what?
    The presentation of self in every day life. How we present our self to others
  2. Impression managemant
    The process by which people attempt to present a favorable public image.
  3. Stigma
    Permanent identity spoilage, a deeply discrediting charactoristic
  4. Goffman's dramaturgy
    Study of social life as a theater.
  5. Dramaturgy: Role
    Image being projected or attempted.
  6. Dramaturgy: Audience
    People who observe our behavior
  7. Dramaturgy: Script
    Communication with others.
  8. Dramaturgy: Props
    Object used to present image.
  9. Dramaturgy: Front stage
    Where appropriate apearance is maintained.
  10. Dramaturgy: Back stage
    Area of social interaction away from the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior.
  11. Performance team:
    Set of individuals in staging a performance that leads an audience to form an impression of one or all team members.
  12. Impression Mismanagement: Disclaimer
    Assertion designed to forstall any complaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statment that is about to occure.
  13. Impression Mismanagement: Embarrassment
    Spontaneous feeling experienced when the identity someone is presenting is suddenly and unexpectedly discredited in front of others.
  14. Impression Mismanagement: Aligning action
    Action taken to restore an identity that has been damaged.
  15. Bureaucracy
    Large hierarchial organization governed by formal rules and regulations and having clearly specified work tasks.
  16. De-skilling
    Subdivision of low-level jobs into small, highly specific tasks requiring less skilled employees.
  17. Division of labor
    Specialization of different people or groups in different tasks, characteristic of most bureaucracies.
  18. Free-rider problem
    Tendency for people to refrain from contributing to the common good when a resourse available without any personal cost or contribution.
  19. Hierachy of authority
    Ranking of people or tasks in a bureaucracy from those at the top, where there is a great deal of powere and authority, to those at the bottom, where there is very little power and authority.
  20. McDonaldization
    Process by which the charactoristics and principles of the fast food restaurant come to dominate other areas of social life.
  21. Multinational corporation
    Company that has manufacturing, production and marketing devisions in multiple countries.
  22. Oligarchy
    System of athority in which many people are rulled by a priviledgedfew.
  23. Social dilemma
    Potential for a society's long-term ruin because of individuals' tendency to persue their own short-term interest.
  24. Social structure
    Framework of society-social institutions, organizations groups, statuses and roles, cultural beliefs, and institutionalized norms- that adds order and predictability to our private lives.
  25. Tragedy of the commons
    Situation in which people acting individually and in their own self-interest use up commonly availabe (but liminted) resources, creating disaster for the entire community.
  26. Absolute poverty
    Inability to afford the minimal requirements for sustaining a reasonably healthy existence.
  27. Authority
    Possesion of some status or quality that compels others to obey one's directives or commands.
  28. Cast system
    Stratification system based on heredity, with little movement allowed across strata
  29. Colonization
    Process of expanding economic markets by invading and establishing control over a weaker country and its people.
  30. Competitive individualism
    Cultural belief that those who suceed in society are those who work hardest and have the best abilities and that those who suffer don't work hard enough or lack the necessary traits or abilities.
  31. Culture-of-poverty thesis
    Belief that poor people, resigned to their position in society, develope a unique value structure to deal with their lack of success.
  32. Estate system (Feudal system)
    Stratification system in which high-status groups own land and have power based on noble birth.
  33. false consciousness
    Situation in which people in the lower classes come to accept a belief system that harms them; the primary means by which powerful classes in society prevent protest and revolution.
  34. means of production
    Land, commercial enterprises, factories, and wealth that form the economic basis of class societies.
  35. middle class
    In a society straified by social class, a group of people who have an intermediate level of wealth, income, and prestige, such as managers, supervisors, executives, small business owners, and proffesionals.
  36. near-poor / working poor
    Individuals of families whose earnings are between 100% and 125% of the poverty line.
  37. poor
    in a society stratified by social class, a group of people who work for minimum wage or are chronically unimployed.
  38. Poverty line
    Amount of yearly income a family requires to meet its basic needs, acording to the federal government.
  39. Poverty rate
    Percentage of people whose income falls below the poverty line.
  40. Power
    Ability to affect decisions in ways that benefit a person or protect his or her interests.
  41. Prestige
    Respect and honor given to some people in society.
  42. Relative poverty
    Individuals' economic position compared with the living standards of the majority in society.
  43. Slavery
    Economic form of inequality in which some people are legaly the property of others.
  44. Social class
    Group of people who share a similar economic position in a society, based on their wealth and income.
  45. Social mobility
    Movement of people or groups from one class to another.
  46. Socioeconomic status
    Prestige, honor, respect, and lifestyle associalted with different positions or groups in society
  47. Stratification
    Ranking system for groups of people that perpetuates unequal rewards and life chances in society.
  48. Upper class
    In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have high income and prestige and who own vast amounts of property and other forms of wealth, such as owners of large corporations, top financiers, rich celebrities and polititions and members of prestigious families.
  49. Working class
    In a society stratified by social class, a group of people who have a loww level of wealth, wealth income and pretige ie. office workers and clerks and laborers.
  50. Working poor
    Employed people who consistently earn wages but do not make enough to survive.
  51. Affirmative action
    Program designed to seek out membors of minority groups for positions from which they had prevoiusly been excluded, thereby seeking to overcome institutional racism.
  52. Colorism
    Skin color prejudice within an ethnoracial proup, most notably between light skinned and dark skinned blacks.
  53. Discrimination
    Unfair treatment of people based on some social characteristic, such as race, ethnicity, or sex
  54. Ethnicity
    Sence of communuty derived from the cultural heritage shared by a category of people within commmon ancestry.
  55. Institutional racism
    Laws, customs, and practices that systematicaly reflect and produce racial and ethnic inequalities in a society, whether or not these individuals maintaining these laws, customs, and practices have racial intention.
  56. Panethnic labels
    general terms applied to diverse subgroups that are asumed to have something in common.
  57. Personal racism
    Individual expression of racist attitudes or behaviors.
  58. Prejudice
    Rigidly held, unfavorableattitudes, beliefs, and feelings about members of a different group based on a social characteristic such as race, ethnicity, or gender.
  59. Quiet racism
    Form of racism expressed subtly and indirectly through feelings of discomfort, uneasiness, and fear, which motivate avoidence rather that blatant dicrimination.
  60. Race
    category of people labeled and treated as similar because of allegidly common biological traits, such as skin color, texture of hair, and shape of eyes.
  61. Racial transparency
    tendency for the race of a socoeties majority to be so obvious, normative, and unremarkable that it becomes invisible.
  62. racism
    Belief that humans are subdevided into distinct groups that are different in their social behavior and innate capacities and that can be ranked as superior or inferior.
  63. Steriotype
    Overgeneralized belief that a certain trait, behavior, or attitude characterizes all members of some identifiable group.
  64. Institutional sexism
    Subordination of woman that is part of the everyday workings of economics, law, politics, and other social institutions.
  65. matriarchy
    female-dominated society that gives higher gives higher prestige and value to woman than to men.
  66. Objectification
    Practice of treating people as objects.
  67. Patriarchy
    Male-dominated society in which cultural beliefs and values give higher prestige and value to men than to woman.
  68. Pay equity
    Principal that woman and men who perform jobs that are of equal value to society and that require equal training ought to be paid equally.
  69. Sexism
    System of belief that aserts that the inferiority of one sex and justifies gender-based inequality

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