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  1. Dogs and cats have ___________ rings in their tracheas
    incomplete. The dorsal is flat--no rings.
  2. smallest functioning part of lungs
  3. Difference between work of inhalation and exhalation
    inhalation involves muscle, exhalation should be passive. "respiratory effort" means something is wrong.
  4. Lungs are sectioned into
    lobes. Different species have different numbers. (Horse's are smooth, dogs and cats are textured, ocean mammals look like a bunch of grapes)
  5. stent
    tunnel or channel to keep trachea open--like a mesh slinky.
  6. caustic
  7. tracheostomy cause and info
    is: an incision between rings, caudal to larynx, so animal can breathe. Needed when there is an upper airway obstruction--swallow ping-pong ball, bleach or bite electric cord. Doesn't work on horses, can't leave it in long for D/C, especially cats.
  8. Collapsing trachea
    mostly small-breed (cocker spaniel, japanese chin), when they cough they sound like a goose. Only treated if it continues to happen or the animal developes pneumonia
  9. aspirate
    material going into the respiratory system that shouldn't. Aspiration pneumonia is lung inflammation from trying to breathe (through collapsed trachea, e.g.) or from feeding in a funny position.
  10. COPD
    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (athsma, emphysema, allergic bronchitis)
  11. athsma
    lungs look cloudy on radiograph. Narrowed bronchus--from inflammation, There are allergic and genetic causes. More often in cats than dogs. Extremely common in houses where someone smokes. Treatment: drugs=bronchodilator, antiinflammatory, inhaler..
  12. port
    version of a pick line to avoid constant needle-sticks.
  13. pneumonia
    inflammation of lung with fluid in lung
  14. pleural effusion
    fluid surounding lungs stops lung expansion. Frluid can have lymph. Life-threatening. Drain with a thoracocentesis
  15. #1 gastrointestinal disease
  16. necrosis
    dead tissue (can be caused by missing the vein in cancer treatment)
  17. malignant lung tumors
    rare in dogs and VERY rare in cats--can metastasize from somewhere else.
  18. megaesophagus
    Big esophagus. Can be hereditary, caused by other genetic problems in some breeds (common in dogs, extremely rare in cats). Eat, then vomit almost immediately (no gagging, just comes back up the same). Treat symptomatically, as surgery is not ideal. Put food up high so gravity can help
  19. gastric ulcer
    an angry red spot where mucous membrane has eroded. in dogs, cats and horses the major cause is non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NAIDS)-tylenol, motrin, advil, aspirin. Can be fatal to dogs and cats. Tylenol will kill a cat. Often treated with pepsid
  20. enteritis/colitis
    intestinal inflammation. Can be caused by parasites, cancer, foreign body.
  21. emesis and diarrhea
    can be viral, bacterial, parasite, diet... "dietary indiscretion" (trash), tape worms spread by fleas (look like grains of rice as pieces break off), cat stomach worm looks like spaghetti. In a young animal, first thought is parasites.
  22. giardia
    protozoan, zoonotic. Has a little face. Causes diarrhea, is caused by contaminated water.
  23. dilitation
    something expands because it is filled with gas or fluid. Passive process--happens by itself. (Dilate is active--you are doing it)
  24. GDV
    gastric dilitation and volvulus, or "bloat". When stomach twists, cutting off esophagus and duodenum. Stomach keeps digesting, fills with air, expands. Symptoms: gagging, heaving, breathing heavily, pain when you touch the abdomen. Common in deep-chested or large-breed dogs (great dane, g. shep, retrievers. Looks like the popeye sign on a radiograph. Treated by fixation.
  25. FB
    foreign body. One is pregnancy. Can cause GI distress. don't radiograph in first or last 1-2 weeks of pregnancy
  26. megacolon
    when constipation turns into obstipation, colon stretches out and animal can't defecate. Constipation=little balls of hard material. Breed disposistion: cats with no tail.
  27. meningitis
    inflammation of lining of the brain
  28. portosystemic shunt (PSS)
    Sometimes ammonia goes into systemic circulation instead of out of the body. Portal circulation (intestines, liver, intestines) accidentally allows it out. Find the bad blood vessel and put a ring around it that eventually clamps all the way shut. Can cause brain inflammation--encephalitis. Neurological impairment, head pressing. Usually dogs, sometimes cats.
  29. metabolic disease
    endocrine disease. Often cause PUPD, Alopecia (endocrine is bilateral and symmetric), changes in weight while eating the same, changes in appetite (hyperthyroid and diabetes eat a lot and lose weight)
  30. PUPD
    polyuria, polydipsea. Drink a lot, pee a lot. hormones telling the kidneys to spped up. Several hundred disease can cause this.
  31. Alopecia
    baldness. Bilateral and symmetric is caused by endocrine. In horses it is overgrowth of curly hair (cushing's disease)
  32. Adrenal disease in cats and dogs
    #1 most common metabolic diease in dogs (cats are diabetes and thyroid). 90% of ferrets get an adrenal tumor at 5-6 years old. Can be malignant or benign. Sometimes adrenal disease issue is with pituitary. Causes hyperadrenocorticism, hypoadrenocorticism, Iatrogenic Cushing's disease, Cushing's and diabetes mellitus
  33. hyperadrenocorticism (cushing's disease)
    Parts of adrenal puts out too much hormone. There are tests and diagnosis: skinny, hyper, stomach sags, often have bisymmetrical alopecia, polydipsea. Horses have stomach sag but thick, long, curly hair.
  34. hypoadrenalcorticism (Addison's Disease)
    opposite of hyper. cholesterol makes steroids. Moce slow, overweight, no signs of stress, PUPD, bilateral alopecia
  35. Iatrogenic Cushing's disease
    Caused by giving animals long-term steriods. When you stop their system freaks out.
  36. Cushing's and diabetes mellitus
    strong association between the two. Steroids encourage production of glucose and release of glucose storage.
  37. Hyperthyroidism
    more common in cats than dogs. Thyroid is a gland that wraps around dorsal trachea--looks like 2, but is just one. It is the gas pedal--sets the speed for kidney, heart, liver, etc. Most common metabolic disease in cats (diabetes #2). Pituitary can cause same symptoms: symmetrical alopecia, weight loss, strong appetite. All you see is weight loss, sometimes.
  38. hypothyroidism
    more common in dogs than cats. Opposite--weight gain without more eating, symmetrical alopecia, slow, tired
  39. dieabetes mellitus types
    • 1. body makes insulin but insulin doesn't work
    • 2. body makes insulin but cells are resistant
    • 3. not enough insulin (hyperglycemia). Too much glucose, not enough energy. Clogs up kidney channels, irritates them and causes kidney damage. Sweet-tasting urine.
  40. islets of Langerhaans
    part of the pancreas that produces insulin
  41. Diabetes mellitus
    Non-functioning glucose/insulin system. Insulin brings glucose into cells to be used. To diagnose, must have hyperglycemia and glucosuria (glucose in urine). Most common in cats. Strong heredity--might be autoimmune in animals. Pancreatitis can cause overproduction or underproduction of insulin. Connects to small intestine so irritation spreads.
  42. Pancreas
    runs along side of duodenum. Pink and looks like cobblestones. Contains Islets of Langerhaans, which produce insulin. The exocrine pancreas produces digestive enzymes.
  43. Insulin
    (Islets of Langerhaans in Pancreas). Regular (real insulin, doesn't last as long but very powerful. Only for very sick) or synthetic (takes longer to work, lasts 10-12 hours. Good for treatment at home). Dosage/dosing are based in how long we think it will last. usually q12h. Oral (not dogs or cats) or sub-Q. Have to keep an eye on blood and urine.
  44. on a radiograph, air looks
  45. Treatment for insulin patients
    food, then insulin (Sub Q), usually every 10-12 hours. If they don't eat, they don't get insulin. Rely on behavior and weight to tell if the dose is right. Cleint needs to watch. Usually do blood and urine tests in the vet every three months or so--rarely at home.
  46. reagent
    something that will interact with a substance if the substance is present
  47. Allery testing
    a syringe with a little bit of allergen on it, ID injection. Make sure you map where you put everything--usually shave dog's side and do it there. OR blood tests--take lots of blood and test for 42 things. RAST is the name of the test--expensive, but preferred
  48. allergen
    something that causes allergy
  49. contact dermatitis
    rash after laying on bed/carpet, etc.
  50. most common thing you see in vet practice
    dermatologic disease
  51. atopy
    environmental allergies (pollen, dust, dust mites)
  52. food allergy
    crusting and alopecia around neck, sometimes head. Can give hypoallergenic food--nas novel protein (unusual protein that animal has never eaten)
  53. most common infection
    ringworm--fungal, zoonotic, dermatophyte. Round alopecia, usually head and neck, not red or itchy.
  54. MRSA
    bacterial infection--antibiotic-resistant staph. Swelling, pain and irritation. Zoonotic
  55. Flea allergy dermatitis (FAD)
    allergy to flea saliva. Hair loss and crusting of skin at head and base of tail.
  56. pyoderma
    infection of skin. Can be deep or superficial
  57. Scrape
    Test. Scrape off the top layer of skin and look under a microscope. Identifies mites or infection
  58. smear
    test where you press the slide against the animal
  59. pluck
    test where you pluck hair (need the root). Identifies ringwork--around follicle. Pluck hair with forceps, put onto agar. Turns red if there's ringworm.
  60. Wood's Lamp
    hand held lamp with fluorescent UV bulb (purple light). Little bright speckles = ringworm (doesn't really work. High false positive, some false negative)
  61. autoimmune
    Most common is lupus--not zoonotic. Common in german shepherd and retrievers.
  62. path of ear
    pinna-->external ear canal (makes a medial turn--pull up and back to see)-->eardrum (tympanic membrane)-->middle ear-->inner ear
  63. cerumen
    earwax. Black or brown on a dog. There is always wax and yeast--an obstruction means that something else is wrong, such as a bacterial infections from overgrowing yeast. Floppy ears are more prone to infection
  64. ear mites
    very tiny, some microscopic. In the spider family. Particularly bad in outdoor or stray puppies and kittens. Looks like coffee grounds or soil in the ear (use a Q-tip and get grounds, try not to touch ear canal, roll onto slide, add oil, and watch them swim. Ear drops to treat. Usually come from a common source, don't give to each other.
  65. Oto
  66. Otitis
    inflammation of ear. Inflammation in middle ear DOES NOT cause deafness--look somewhere else
  67. heterochromia
    2 different color eyes
  68. likeliness of deafness
    Comes from inner ear> white fur and blue eyes, heterochromia, some breeds (Dalmations)
  69. Aural Hematoma
    Looks like a growth, but isn't one. Very little subQ fat in ear, so ear will swell up with blood if it's hurt or if dog shakes it too hard. Draining doesn't work, blood comes back. Open skin (oval slot), leave open, suture to keep open and keep skin flat to cartiledge. Will scar in.
  70. otitis externa
    inflammation of outer ear
  71. otitis media
    inflammation of middle ear. Does not cause deafness
  72. progression of eye from front to back
    cornea--> fluid--> iris (color, hole in middle is pupil, where light enters)--> lens (focus light)--> fluid (different)--> retina (gathers image like film)--> nerve cells form a cable to be optic nerve.
  73. cornea
    clear, outermost part of eye. In front of fluid and iris
  74. iris
    the color. Has pupil in center. Behind cornea/fluid and in front of lens
  75. pupil
    hole in iris where light goes in. Behnd cornea/fluid and in front of lens
  76. lens
    helps focus light. Behind iris, before fluid/retina
  77. retina
    film in camera that gathers image. Back of eye--behind fluid and lens, in front of optic nerve
  78. uveitis
    inflammation deep to cornea (fluid or corneal tissue). Eye will appear blue and cloudy
  79. cataract
    lens hardens and gets cloudy (more dogs, particularly particular breeds)
  80. glaucoma
    fluid pressure behind lens increases--in or out problem behind the lens. Painful and causes blindness. Very common in brachycephalic dogs. Makes eye swell forward
  81. enucleation
    removal of eye (if glaucoma is bad and you can't fix it). There is a prosthetic (more for owners--tends to get infected)
  82. iritis
    inflammation of iris. Happens in diseases including Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV). Eye looks blue
  83. ocular larva migrans
    larval roundworm that migrates and loves to hang out in eye. Find in ch8ildren (sandbox, transmitted by feces). Can cause vision loss
  84. ectropion
    lid folds outward (basset hounds). Surgical treatment
  85. entropion
    lid folds inward (lashes against eyeball). Surgical treatment
  86. nictating membrane
    3rd eyelid. Grey that rolls up. There is a gland behind it. The gland can collapse and stick out, causing "cherry eye" (prolapse). Treat with meds--do NOT remove membrane
  87. Cherry eye
    prolapse of the gland of the nictating membrane. Treat with meds. Do not remove membrane
  88. ancylostoma spp.
    hookworm. Found in dogs and cats (more dogs). Get into small intestine, hook on and suck blood. Usually causes diarrhea. Severe infection in puppies and kittens can cause severe blood loss
  89. Toxocara Spp.
  90. trichuris spp.
  91. most common enteric parasites in dogs (first 2 in cats)
    toxocara spp. (roundworms), ancylostoma spp. (hookworms), trichuris spp. (whipworms--only most common in dogs)
  92. ectoparasites (causing endoparasites)
    • mosquito causes heartworm
    • fleas cause tapeworm
    • biting flies and lice don't cause anything--they are a nuisance. Can be allergy to saliva or bite. They like liquid--hang out in tears
  93. Ticks
    in the spider family. Cause lyme disease, ehrlichia, and rocky mounted spotted fever
  94. lyme disease
    caused by ticks. Joints, shifting-leg lameness in dogs/horses, lethargy. Named for town in CT.
  95. Ehrlichia
    Tick-borne inflammation and infection of eye, GI tract, repiratory tract. Used to be only in large animals, now seen more in dogs (because dogs get more ticks).
  96. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
    tick-borne bacterium found mostly on east coast. Causes fever and clotting issues. Can be fatal
  97. Anemia
    low number of RBCs
  98. Leukocytosis
    high number of WBCs
  99. Thrombocytopenia
    too few platelets
  100. Regenerative anemia
    losing blood (bleeding), but bone marrow can make more.
  101. Non-regenerative anemia
    bone marrow can't make enough RBCs. Chonic disease. Flea infestation can eventually cause this, if it's bad enough.
  102. Aplastic anemia
    VERY RARE in animals. Almost no RBCs.
  103. PCV
    packed cell volume. Test that tells us the percent of RBCs in blood. PCV 25 is 25% of blood is RBCs
  104. Heart order
    Vena cava, Right atrium, tricuspid valve, right ventricle, pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, left atrium, mitral valve, left ventricle, aorta
  105. ductus arteriosus
    connection in fetus between pulmonary artery and aorta. Fetus gets oxygen from blood, so no need to go to the lungs. When born, it slams shut.
  106. patent ductus arteriosus
    doesn't close at birth. non-oxygenated blood going to body. Treated surgically. Congenital
  107. Heartworm
    Trype of roundworm spread by mosquitos. Larva float in blood, land in pulmonary artery and can grow into heart. More in dogs than cats, but common.
  108. Mitral valve insufficiency
    blood can go backward from left vetricle to left atrium. Mostly in small-breed older dogs.
  109. Dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
    enlargement of heart. trongly genetic. Dilated is mostly dogs--dobermans. Hypertrophic is cats and dogs, very common in large cats (maine coon--70-80%)
  110. Ventricular septal defect
    hole in the wall between ventricles, so blood sloshes across. Congenital.
  111. congenital
    born with it
  112. pyometra
    infection of uterus (not in spayed animals)
  113. vaginal prolapse
    vagina outside body, has to be put back in. Happens with dystocia, often recurrs. Common in large animals (equine and bovine)
  114. false pregnancy
    hormonal disturbance of dogs (mostly). Animal thinks they are pregnant and will nest. Most common in unspayed females
  115. cryptorchidism
    hereditary. "hidden testicle". Testicals start at diaphragm and move down during development. Usually cryptorchid is only on one side. It is genetic, so animal should not be bred. Must search during neuter to remove, but you have to get it or it can enlarge, pump out testosterone or become cancerous.
  116. sertoli cell tumor
    cancer of testicles
  117. zoonotic diseases
    • Brucella (abortion bacterium)
    • Rabies (virus)
    • ocular, cutaneous and visceral larva migrans (GI tract, under skin, in eye)
    • dermatophytosis (ringworm)
    • MRSA (staph-resistant bacteria)
  118. Diseases that come from a common source but are not zoonotic
    • West Nile virus (mosquitos, problem in horses)
    • Leptospirosis (bacterium in standing water)
    • Lyme disease (ticks)
  119. retroviruses
    viruses that use host's DNA to replicate (usually RNA). Canine leukemia (we think), Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV, NOT animal HIV), Feline leukemia Virus (FeLV)
  120. subluxate
    move partly out of position.
  121. luxating patella
    knee cap moving out of position. Common in small breed dogs. Often leave alone, but can do surgery
  122. luxate
    move out of position
  123. Hip Displasia
    2nd most common orthopedic problem (behind accident fractures) head of femur doesn't fit into socket in pelvis (head wrong shape, shallow socket, too far away). Difficult walking, stance, sit with one leg to the side, eventually get arthritis. Surgical treatment and hip replacement. Common in dogs, rare in cats.
  124. Osteochondrosis dissecans
    congenital abnormality of bones where they enter the joint.
  125. arthritis
    most odler animals, especially cats. Joint inflammation. Use glucosamine chondroitin and antinflammatories.
Card Set:
2012-04-30 17:03:16
vet tech

vet tech body systems and disease
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