exam 3

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  1. What is the only FDA approved non-prescription product to reduce the duration of cold sores?
    Docosanol 10% (Abreva®)
  2. Which type of UV radiation triggers herpes simplex labialis?
  3. Xerostomia caused by medication may be reversed after discontinuation of that medication?
  4. What is a pharmacologic therapy for xerostomia?
    Saliva replacement products such as Biotene or Salivart
  5. Products containing aloe are recommended for diaper rash (T/F)
  6. What is the minimum age for mouth wash use?
    12 y/o
  7. What are thought to be some of the main causes for recurrent apthous stomatitis?
    Stress; trauma; hormonal changes; smoking cessation; autoimmune disorders; nutritional deficiencies; genetics
  8. Name the preferred denture cleanser ingredient?
    Alkaline peroxide
  9. How do you reduce the risk of gingivitis?
    Brush and floss
  10. What particular populations are at higher risk of developing gingivitis?
    Pregnancy and teenagers (d/t hormonal changes)
  11. What are the causes of minor injury or tooth irritation?
    Accidental injury (biting cheek; abrasion from food; scratching gums; brushing teeth, etc) & minor dental procedures
  12. What is the one primary ingredient that is in all of the desensitizing toothpastes?
    Potassium nitrate 5%
  13. Proper brushing and flossing daily prevents the formation of _____________?
  14. Is there a difference in efficacy between waxed and un-waxed dental floss?
    No – same efficacy
  15. A person presenting with denture-related problems may also have _________?
    • a) bad breath
    • b) halitosis
    • c) caries
    • d) gingivitis
    • e) all the above
  16. What can be the cause of denture stomatitis?
    Improper cleaning of the dentures
  17. What is the main cause of bad breath (90% of cases)?
    Poor oral hygiene
  18. What is the minimum age for a person to use fluoride?
    6 years (This may be what the book says, however under physician supervision we may use fluoride supplementation as early as 6 months of age)
  19. What is one non-pharmacologic treatment for teething?
    Massage gums, frozen pacifier, teething ring, cold cloth, dry toast
  20. Aging of the skin results from:
    A. Extrinsic factors
    B. Both A & B
    C. Intrinsic factors
    B. Both A & B
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  21. What is the hallmark sign of prickly heat?
    The small, raised blister-type lesions
  22. What are the treatments for treating irritant contact dermatitis?
    Avoid the irritant; emollients, moisturizers, barrier creams; anti-inflammatories
  23. What is the BEST treatment for irritant contact dermatitis?
    Prevent exposure to the irritant
  24. Contact with poison ivy will cause which type of contact dermatitis?
    Allergic dermatitis
  25. What is the main difference between allergic contact dermatitis and irritant contact dermatitis?
    The causative agent (irritant vs allergen)
  26. How should a patient with dry skin or atopic dermatitis bath?
    Take short showers (3-5 minutes) with warm water and possibly bath oils. Pat down dry or air dry and apply moisturizer within 3 minutes after getting out
  27. People with different racial backgrounds have a different number of melanocytes
  28. Which type of contact dermatitis includes oozing and weeping?
    Allergic contact dermatitis
  29. T/F: Irritant contact dermatitis can cause lightening of the skin (hypopigmentation)
    True – It can cause both hyper and hypo-pigmentation
  30. Why must people of advanced age use caution when using bath oils?
    Increased risk of falls
  31. How often should a diaper be changed?
  32. What are the three types of specialty wound dressings?
    Those that: Absorb, maintain, or provide moisture
  33. What strength of benzocaine is contraindicated in children due to risk of methglobinemia?
    Benzocaine 20%
  34. A patient with diabetes comes in presenting with a sunburn on his face. Is the patient acceptable for self-treatment?
    No, both diabetes and a burn to the face exclude self treatment
  35. How are burns assessed?
    Depth and BSA
  36. What are two methods for prevention of sunburn?
    Sunscreen and clothing (prevent excess exposure)
  37. As pharmacists, what is the most important consideration when assessing the cause of a patient’s denture disorder?
    A. The infectious organism responsible
    B. Whether the patient has a partial or complete denture
    C. Denture stomatitis vs ill fitting dentures
    D. The type of cleaner the patient uses
    A. Denture stomatitis vs ill fitting dentures
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  38. If the burn worsens or is not healed significantly in _____ days, you should contact your healthcare provider
    7 days
  39. T/F: Phototoxicity is an immunologic response
    False – photoallergy is immunologic, phototoxicity is not
  40. Which UV band is responsible for Vitamin D synthesis and also the primary inducer of skin cancer?
  41. What is the key thing to keep good oral hygiene?
    A. Use mouth wash
    B. A & C
    C. Brush your teeth 2x/day
    D. Floss once/day
    e. All of the above
    C. A & C
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  42. What self-treatment for hyperpigmentation is currently under review for safety?
  43. What concentration of AHAs is considered safe for OTC use by the Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel?
    A. <20%
    B. >10%
    C. >20%
    D. <10%
    A. <10%
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  44. T/F: The unsoiled part of a diaper can be used to clean or wipe the infant as long as it’s clean, because diapers are more absorptive than baby wipes
  45. What are the 2 types/classes of sunscreen products?
    Physical and chemical
  46. What is the maximum amount of time you should use hydrocortisone cream?
    7 days
  47. T/F: Alternating cold and heat is a viable non-pharmacologic treatment for RAS (recurrent apthous stomatitis)
  48. What type of UVR is responsible for premature aging?
    UVA & UVB
  49. What are some non-pharmacologic therapies for minor oral mucosal injury or inflammation?
    Ice for 10 minutes for swelling
  50. Sodium bicarbonate solution
    Saline rinse
  51. Who are less susceptible to prickly heat?
    A. Elderly
    B. Female adults
    C. Male adults
    D. Adolescents
    E. Infants
    E. Elderly
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  52. What is one exclusion to self-care for oral hygiene?
    A. Foul odor to breath in the morning
    B. > 75 y/o
    C. Gingivitis
    D. Plaque buildup
    D. Gingivitis
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  53. If a patient enters your pharmacy with ephelides, the problem is??
    A. Mainly a cosmetic problem
    B. Evidence of a local infectionNot an issue
    C. Severe and requires a PCP ASAP
    C. Mainly a cosmetic problem
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  54. How many times per day can a person apply a skin protectant?
    As much as needed
  55. What are the exclusions to self-treatment of contact dermatitis?
    <2 y/o; >20% of BSA involved; swelling; impairment of daily activities; extreme itching, severe vesicle formation
  56. What are 3 key educational points to tell patients with atopic dermatitis?
    Stop the itch-scratch cycle; get adequate hydration; avoid triggers
  57. An 18 y/o patient presents with atopic dermatitis with very intense itching. What would be the plan of action and why?
    Refer – severe itching is an exclusion to self-treatment.
  58. What are the 3 different stages for atopic dermatitis and the respective clinical presentations?
    • 1) 2 years – chest/face – red raised vesicles
    • 2) 2-4 years – scalp, neck, wrists – less acute lesions, edema
    • 3) 12-20 years – flexors, hands – dry, hyperpigmentation, thickened plaques
  59. What is the highest strength of hydrocortisone available OTC?
  60. Which topical pharmacologic treatment of contact dermatitis can worsen bacterial or fungal infections (if misdiagnosed)?
  61. T/F: if exposed to a chemical burn you should find an agent to counteract the burn and pour it on the burn
  62. Which stage(s) of wounds and burns include full thickness skin loss?
    Stages 3 & 4
  63. DA, a 52 y/o male, comes into the pharmacy with a burn that has entry and exit sites. It has also penetrated down to the bone. You should:
    A. Refer the patient
    B. Wash with ice cold water
    C. Apply camphor or menthol
    D. Do not do anything; let it heal on its own
    B. Refer the patient
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  64. After how many days of unimproved diaper dermatitis should your refer?
    7 days
  65. Hydrocortisone cream can be used for diaper rash in infants? T/F
  66. Which of the following factors decrease the risk of diaper rash?
    A. Infrequent changing of the diaper
    B. Using reusable cloth diapers
    C. Using disposable diapers
    d. Medication and food that decrease microbial flora in the GINone of the above
    A. Using disposable diapers
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  67. What are 3 nonpharmacologic therapies to help treat dry skin?
    • 1. Increase room humidity with cool mist humidifier
    • 2.Drink eight 8 oz glasses of water/day
    • 3.Apply oil based emollients after bathing
    • 4. Cleansers and glycerin soaps
    • 5. Oatmeal bath or bath oils near end of bath
  68. When should you use topical antimicrobials on minor burns?
    Not necessary if the skin is unbroken, but the petrolatum base may be soothing/help symptoms. If the skin is broken, topical anti-microbials can be used for up to 7 days to prevent infection
  69. How long can you self-treat a minor burn?
    7 days
  70. Ideally, what is the minimum number of times a diaper should be changed per day?
  71. What kind of diaper has the lowest incidence of diaper rash?
    Disposable diapers
  72. What is the purpose of a protectant?
    Physical barrier between skin and external irritants, lubricants for skin-skin/diaper friction, absorbs moisture.
  73. 50-80% of photodamage to the skin occurs by what age?
    20 years
  74. Which type of UVR is most likely to induce skin cancer?
    UVB has commonly been implicated in skin cancer, however UVA penetrates deeper and also causes significant damage (and according to the CDC, is responsible for skin cancer) so I don’t think we can answer this question definitively.
  75. T/F A sunscreen with a lower SPF has more protection against sun exposure
  76. What is the best way to avoid harmful UV rays of the sun?
    a) prepare for sunbathing at a Laramie tanning salon first
    b) apply sunscreen at the beginning of the day to prevent sunburn
    c) apply sunscreen, wear a broad-brimmed hat and stay out of sun during mid-day hours
    d) 2/3 answers above are correct
    apply sunscreen, wear a broad-brimmed hat and stay out of sun during mid-day hours
  77. What is the most severe type of skin cancer?
  78. What is the physiologic cause of hyperpigmentation?
    Increased deposit of melanin in the skin from sun damage, inflammation, or other skin damage.
  79. What do you use to treat hyperpigmentation?
    Hydroquinone 2%
  80. Why would it be effective to pair hydroquinone with AHA?
    Hydroquinone inhibits tyrosine, preventing further melanin production. AHA works to lighten skin in short order by exfoliating skin. Together, they lighten skin in different and complimentary ways.
  81. Which specific skin disorders can BHA be used for?
    Dermatitis and psoriasis
  82. Which product would be best to help decrease the presence of wrinkles?
  83. What has been the gold-standard agent for outpatient treatment of minor or partial thickness burns?
    Silver sulfadiazine
  84. What common household condiment is argued to have more anti-microbial effect than silver sulfadiazine?
  85. What product is not endorsed by the FDA but is frequently used to treat sunburn discomfort?
    Aloe Vera Gel
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exam 3
onysko oral care/dermatology
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