A & P II

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  1. digestive system
    • a coiled hollow, muscular tube that is open on both ends
    • mouth -> anus
    • lined with mucous membrane
  2. 3 components of the digestive system
    • digestive tract
    • alumentary canal
    • gastrointestinal tract
  3. 4 major functions of digestive tract
    • ingestion
    • digestion
    • absorption
    • defecation
  4. ingestion
    putting food into mouth
  5. digestion
    breaking the food down into smaller molecules that our cells can use
  6. absorption
    absorption of nutrients from digestive tract into blood
  7. defecation
    ridding the body of wastes
  8. we take food into the mouth
    the teeth will mechanically break down food into smaller pieces
  9. why do we break food into smaller pieces in the mouth?
    • so it fits down the throat
    • increase surface area for more efficient chemical breakdown
  10. why is food mixed with saliva?
    it contains amylase
  11. amylase
    enzyme that breaks down carbs
  12. bolus
    a ball that is formed by the tongue mixing the food with saliva
  13. What does the tongue do with the bolus?
    pushes it into the oropharynx
  14. stomach
    • temporary storage tank for the chyme
    • can hold up to a gallon of chyme when full
    • walls are thrown into folds called rugae when empty
  15. chyme
    what used to be the bolus
  16. gastroesophageal sphincter
    keeps the chyme from flowing back up into esophagus
  17. heartburn
    • when stomach is over full or gastroesophageal sphincter doesn't close properly
    • achidic chyme burns walls of esophagus
  18. pyloric sphincter
    • regulates stomach emptying
    • lets out a little chyme at a time
  19. small intestine
    • "small" because of its diameter
    • some chemical breakdown occurs here by enzymes
    • major function - absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream
  20. what 3 structures does the small intestine have that make it very efficient at absorption
    • villi
    • microvilli
    • circular folds
  21. circular folds within small intestine
    greatest absorptive surface area
  22. large intestine
    • frames the small intestine
    • "large" because of it's diameter
  23. parts of large intestine
    • cecum
    • colon - ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid
    • rectum
    • anus
  24. function of large intestine
    • to absorb water back into the body
    • dries out the waste (feces)
    • propels the waste to outside the body
  25. liver
    produces bile
  26. bile
    • an emulsifier that helps to break down fats (lipids)
    • stored and concentrated in the gall bladder
  27. gall bladder
    • stores and concentrates bile
    • releases bile into duodenum
  28. vitamins
    • fat soluble - A, D, E, K
    • water soluble - B, C
  29. esophagus
    • about 10" long
    • muscular tube
    • collapsed when empty
    • posterior to trachea
    • pushed bolus into stomach by peristalsis
  30. peristalsis
    wave like muscular contractions
  31. 3 devisions of the small intestine
    • duodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  32. 3 macronutrients
    • carbohydrates
    • lipids
    • proteins
  33. carbohydrates
    • breakdown into: simple sugars
    • enzyme: amylase
  34. lipids
    • breakdown into: fatty acids
    • enzyme: lipase
  35. proteins
    • breakdown into: amino acids
    • enzyme: protease
  36. What 2 types of digestion take place in the stomach?
    • chemical by enzymes
    • mechanical by churning
Card Set:
A & P II
2012-04-27 22:54:23
Digestive system

digestive system
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