BIOL141 - c.16 Respiratory Physiology Test4.txt

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dmk5154
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149855
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BIOL141 - c.16 Respiratory Physiology Test4.txt
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2012-04-24 16:31:47
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psu physiology
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BIOL 141 Final- c.16
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  1. Oxygen moves from the air into the bloodstream via the _________.
    alveoli
  2. The primary force causing oxygen to move from the air into the blood is _________.
    diffusion
  3. What prevents food from going down the trachea?
    epiglottis
  4. Cilia covering the epithelial cells of the mucous membranes in the trachea and nasal cavity push mucus toward the ______.
    pharynx
  5. The contraction of the diaphragm causes the thoracic cavity to expand in which direction?
    vertically (diaphragm dome shape allows for downward(vertical) expansion)
  6. Contraction of the intercostal muscles and diaphragm causes the thoracic cavity to _______ and the air pressure in the lungs to _______.
    expand ; decrease (as volume increases, pressure decreases & vice versa)
  7. site of gas exchange : _______________
    respiratory zone
  8. this gets air to the lungs & Warms, humidifies, filters, and cleans the air:
    conduction zone
  9. ________ secrete pulmonary surfactant and reabsorb sodium and water, preventing fluid buildup
    Alveolar cells (type II)
  10. Air moves from _______ to ________ pressure
    higher to lower
  11. __________ law States that the pressure of the same volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume (Vol. increases, pressure decreases)
    Boyle's
  12. in inspiration: as pressure in lungs decrease, intercostal muscles ___________
    expand
  13. __________ is excessive protein infiltration of connective tissue (black lung seen in Miners)
    pulmonary fibrosis
  14. _________ allows alveoli to remain expanded
    surfactant
  15. law of ________: Pressure is directly proportional to surface tension and inversely proportional to radius of alveolus.
    Laplace
  16. a baby (usually premature) born with without surfactant has a high risk for alveolar collapse. This is called ___________
    Respiratory Distress syndrome
  17. __________ records lung volume and frequency air movements
    spirometry
  18. (common in smokers) _______ is decreased surface area and alveoli destruction
    emphysema
  19. _________ law: The total pressure of a gas mixture is equal to the sum of the pressures of each gas in it.
    Dalton's
  20. __________ law: The amount of gas that can dissolve in liquid depends on: solubility, temperature, & partial pressure of the gasses
    Henry's
  21. the cerebral cortex controls __________ breathing, while the medulla oblongata & pons control __________ breathing
    voluntary ; involuntary
  22. Hemoglobin holds less O2 in exercise (lowers pH) because the body requires more O2. this is called the ________
    Bohr effect
  23. fetal hemoglobin has a _________ affinty for O2 than the mother. The fetus receives more oxygen due to this.
    higher
  24. Inherited Hemoglobin Defects are treated with ___________; stimulates production of fetal hemoglobin without the defect
    hydroxyurea
  25. Thalassemia and sickle cell anemia are similar inherited disorders affecting ______________
    hemoglobin
  26. diaphragm ________ in inspiration, and ___________ in expiration
    contracts; relaxes
  27. The __________ pleura lines the thoracic wall, while The ________ pleura covers the lungs.
    parietal ; visceral
  28. Reaction to allergens; Spasms of the bronchial muscles that severely restrict air flow is called _________
    asthma
  29. _________ measures pH, Partial CO2 and O2
    chemorectors
  30. When ventilation is inadequate, CO2 levels ______ and pH ____
    increase; decrease
  31. ______: below-normal hemoglobin levels
    Anemia
  32. _________ is made in the kidneys stimulates hemoglobin/RBC production when O2 levels are low
    Erythropoietin
  33. _________ is above-normal hemoglobin levels; more RBC made (may occur due to high altitudes, doping)
    polycythemia

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