AP Psych Terms

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AP Psych Terms
2012-05-02 22:20:52

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  1. Case Study
    research method in which one person is studied in depth in order ot reveal general principles of behavior
  2. Defense Mechanism
    the ego's protective methods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distrorting reality

    What people do to lessen their anxiety
  3. Unconscious
    reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories according to Freud
  4. id
    • Operates on the pleasure principle
    • * think of dog humping leg**
    • Know's what it wants and wants it now
  5. ego (Mod 44)
  6. -operates on the reality principle
    • -seeks to gratify id's impulses in realistic ways
    • mediated demand of the id, superego and realisty
  7. Superego
    • part of personality that represents internalized ideals, and provides standard judgements and for future aspirations
    • "voice of the unconscience"
    • -right and wrong
  8. Psychosexual Stages
    • Oral (0-18m)
    • Anal (18-36)
    • Phallic (3-6 yrs)
    • Latency (6- puberty)
    • Genital (puberty onward)
  9. Opedipal Complex
    a boys sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealously and hatred for the rival father
  10. identification
    children incorporate their parents' values into their developing superegos

    According to Freud
  11. Fixation
    If conflicts in early psychosexual stages aren't resolved, fixation occurs, on whatever pleasure seeking stage it is at...

    ak conflict in oral stage, fixation may be sucking thumb
  12. Repression
    • banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
    • -think insomnia, forget bad experiences
  13. Regression
    • an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infanitile psychosexual stage
    • ex) 1st day of school anxiety brings old thumb sucking from oral stage
  14. Reaction Formation
    • ego unconsciously switches unacceptable impulses into their opposites
    • ex) unaccepatble "I hate him" becomes "I love him"

    *think reaction is the opposite of what you'd think"
  15. Free Association
    method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes ot mind, no matter how trivial or embarrising (psycho analysis)
  16. Psychoanalysis
    Freud's theory of personality that attritubes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; technique is used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interperet unconscious tensions
  17. Projection (Mod 44)
    • disguise threatening impulses by attributing them to others
    • ex) "He doesn't trust me"--> "I don't trust him" ---> " I don't trust myself"

    **think it's gonna be a project to get him to trust me**
  18. Rationalization
    • we unconscioiusly generate self -justifying explantions to hide from ourselves the real reason for our actions
    • ex) I drink only to be socialable, thats all

    *think rationalize as in make up reasons for your actions*
  19. Displacement
    • shifts sexual/aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person
    • ex) kicking dog, snapping at roommate
  20. Collective Unconscious
    • Carl Jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species history
    • **mother's symoblic for nuturance
  21. Projective Test
    a personality test, presents an ambiguous stimuli and then ask the test taker to describe or tell a story about it, hoping to reveal a projection into their interest and conflicts
  22. Thematic Appreciation Test (TAT)
    projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interest through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes

    *think TAT as in a have a tatoo story for you :)**
  23. Rorschach Inkblot Test
    most widely used projective test, set of inkblots designed by Herman Rorschach; seeks to indentify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
  24. Terror Management Theory ( Mod 44)
    Proposes that faith in one's worldview and the pursuit of self-esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death
  25. Self Actualization
    Abraham Maslow, the need to fufill one's potential
  26. Unconditional Postive Regard
    according to Rogers, an attitude of total acceptance toward another person

    • **family, client-centered therapy,
    • Think parent's have unconditional love for you
  27. Self -concept
    all our thoughts and feelings about ourselves, an answer to the question "Who am I?"
  28. Traits
    a characteristic pattern of behavior or a disposition to feel/act as assessed by self-report inventories and peer reports
  29. Personality Inventories
    questionaire covering wide range of feelings and behaviors
  30. Minnesota Muliphasic Personality Inventory (Mod 46)
    objective test to designed to measure personality
  31. The Big "5" Personality Factors
    • Conscientiousness
    • Agreeableness
    • Neuroticism
    • Openness
    • Extraversion
  32. Empirically Derived Test
    a test developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups

  33. Social-cognitive perspective
    views behaviors as influenced by the interaction betwen persons (and their thinking) and their social context (situation)

    *think social -sitation and cogntive-thinking
  34. Reciprocal Determinism
    the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors
  35. Personal Control
    our sense of controlling our environment rather than feeling helpless
  36. External locus of control
    perception that chance or outside forces beyhond one's personal control determines ones fate
  37. Internal Locus of control
    perception that one controls ones own identity
  38. Learned Helplessness
    Passive behavior produced by repeating exposure to unavoidable, aversive events

    ex) Bella not needing to tye her shoe cuz dad always would
  39. Positive Psychology
  40. scienctific study of optimal human functioning
  41. Spotlight Effect
    Thinking more people are paying attention to you than really is, aka you think everyone will notice your little stain when no one really does

    tendency of people to over estimate the extent to which other people are noticing/evaluating them
  42. Self-Esteem
    An individual's sense of self worth
  43. Self-Serving Bias
    Tendency to perceive oneself favorably
  44. Meta-Analysis
    A procedure for statistically combining the results of many different research studies
  45. Psychoparmacology
    study of the effects of drugs on mind and behaviors
  46. biomedical therapy
    prescribed medication or medical produres that act directly on the patient's nervous system
  47. Tartive dyskinesia
    involuntary movements of the facial muscles, tongue, and limbs; possible side effects of long term use of antipsychotic drugs that dopamine receptors

    *think you will look psychotic if this happens to you***
  48. electroconvulsive therapy
    a biomedical treatment in which electric shock is used to produce in cortical seizure accompanied by confulsions; used primarily for treatment of depression

    *think convulsive causing convultions and seizures*
  49. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulations
    application of repeating pulses of magnetic energy to the brain; used to stimulate or suppress brain activity
  50. Psychosurgery
    surgery that removes or destroys brain tissue in an effort to change behavior
  51. Lobotomy
    a now rare psychosurgicalprocedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional and violent patients
  52. Cognitive Therapy
  53. therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting
    * changing the way we think can result in positive changes in the way we act and feel
  54. Cognitive-Behavior therapy
    Aims to alter ways people think and act and to make them aware of their irrational negative thinking
  55. Family Therapy
    therapy that treats family as a system
  56. Psychotherapy
    an emotioonally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulties
  57. Active Listening
    empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies

  58. Behavior Therapy
    Replaces learned behaviors with constructive ones, no underlying cause
  59. Counterconditioning
    a behavior therapy procedure that conditoins new responses to stiumli that trigger unwanted behaviors; based on classical conditioning

    **enclosed space of elevator with relaxed response**

    -exposure therapies
  60. Exposure Therapy
    treate anxieties by exposing people to thing they fear and avoid
  61. Systematic Desensitization
    A type of conterconditioning that associates a pleasant relaxed state with gradually increasing anxiety-triggering stimuli.
  62. Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy
    progressively exposes people to simulations of their greatest fears, such as airplane flying, spiders, or public speaking
  63. Aversive conditioning
    type of counterconditioning that associates an unpleasant state (such as nausea) with an unwanted behavior (such as drinking alcohol)
  64. Token Economy
    an operant conditioning procedure in which people earn a token of some sort for exhibiting a desired behavior and can later exchange the tokens for various privledges or treats
  65. Electic Approach
    uses a blend of approaches
  66. Resistance
    might be the inability to remember certain details you block from your conscious to
  67. Transference
    the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
  68. Interpretation
    • Providing insight on your underlying wishes, dreams, etc,
    • *giving a meaning of why you may not want to talk about your mother
  69. Client-centered therapy
    A humanistic therapy based on carl Roger's belief that an individual has an unlimited capacity for psychological growth and will continue to grow unless barriers are placed in the way
  70. Psychotherapy
    an emotionally charged, confiding interaction between a trained therapist and someone who suffers from psychological difficulites
  71. social psychology
    the study of how what others do and say affect how we think, speak, and act
  72. attribution theory
    people judge others actions based on the individual's personality and situation
  73. fundamental attribution error
    people will judge actions more heavily based on personality a nd tend ot minimize the situational effect
  74. attitudes
    how people feel and believe, which ultimately may affect an action or response
  75. Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
    people tend to believe/agree to a large idea or action after being first introduce to a related but simplier idea/action
  76. cognitive dissonance theory
    when it's recongnized by an individual that a belief and action are not consistant, they take action to allow the belief and action to agree
  77. Conformity
    adjusting to a group standard, may involve confusion to what an individual thought they knew
  78. Normative social influence
    changing/conforming to what seems to avoid you from becoming rejected or the "odd ball" **wanting approval
  79. Informational socal influence
    occurs when one goes along with anothers opinion or idea after hearing the facts
  80. Social Facilitation
    when an individual perfrms better under observation
  81. Social loafing
    When working with a group one may participate less effort than when working individually
  82. deindividuation
    occurs when one becomes less self conscious and reserved when in a group, may cause chaos

    **aka food fight
  83. group polarization
    groups grow when disscussion are in action about common ideas within the group
  84. groupthink
    thoughts/ideas become unrealistic during the process of trying to reach harmony,

    **often occurs when president discusses plans
  85. Prejudice
    an attitude/feeling about a group of people that's unfair and unjust
  86. stereotype
    catogorizing a group of people for what one seems to be true about all members
  87. discrimination
    ACTING a certain way toward someone/roup based on stereotypical beliefs,
  88. ingroup
    inlcude "yourself" in a group "us"
  89. outgroup
    inluces "them"; a group you are not a part of and you view as someone you are not
  90. Ingroup bias
    favoring your own "ingroup"
  91. scapegoat theory
    it's easy for people to find someone to blame in situations, helps boost themselves when they are able to put blame towards another person
  92. Just-World phenomenon
    idea that people get what they deserve: Evil is punished as good is rewarded
  93. aggression
    any verbal expression or phsycial expression that is intended to cause harm
  94. frustration-aggession principle
    when people get frustrated, anger follows which then may lead to acts of aggression
  95. conflict
    a dispute/disagreeance caused by ideas/thoughts, beliefs that are not compatable
  96. social trap
    situations where when multiple individual same decisions for themselves it's a lose-lose but when decisions are made for/with someone people all win. Harm collective well-being by persuing personal interest
  97. mere-exposure effect
    the more exposure to something the stronger chances a person begins to like such stimuli
  98. passionate love
    usually begining stage of relationship in which arousal is caused and coinsidingly positive absorption towards each other is felt
  99. compassionate love
    usually later, stage when love is felt due to the involvement in each other's lives
  100. equity
    an equal amount of give and take
  101. self-disclosure
    telling personal details about oneself
  102. altruism
    an unselfish concern for others welfare
  103. bystander effect
    people are more likely to notice a situation, help someone, when no one else is around. bystanders decrease the likeliness for an individual to help in an emergency situation becuase htey believe someone else will
  104. socal exchange theory
    people weigh the cost and rewards to decifer if an act is worth it
  105. Reciprocity Norm
    we should help those who have helped us
  106. social responsibility norm
    something we are taught, to help those who need our help
  107. superordinate goals
    goals in which opposing groups have to work together to reach, otucoming in cooperation
  108. GRIT
    Graduated and Reciprocated Initives in action redeption's acts to reduce tension but not lose strong reputation
  109. psychological disorder
    deviant, distressful, dysfunctional behaviors

    *Has 3 o's soy rmember the 3 d's**
  110. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    characterized by 1) extereme inattention 2) hyperactivity or 3) impusivity
  111. medical model
    psychological disorders are illnesses that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases cured
  112. DSM-IV American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Menual of Mental Disorders
    provides a widely used system of classifying psycholigcal disorders
  113. Anxiety disorders
    involve distressing, persisitent anxiety, or aladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
  114. generalized anxiety disorder
    person is continualy tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal for no apparent reason
  115. Panic Disorder
    episode of intense dread accompanied by chest pain, dizziness, or choking
  116. phobia
    anxiety disorder characterized by persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation
  117. OCD
    person experiences uncontrollable repetitive thoughts and actions
  118. PTSD
    haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxeity and/or imsomnia lasting 4 weeks or more after the traumatic experience
  119. dissociative disorders
    person appears to experience a sudden loss of memory or change in identity
  120. dissociative identity disorder
    person exhibits 2 or more distinct and alternating personalities (multiple pesronality disorder)
  121. Personality disorders
    inflexible and enduring maladaptive character traits that impair social functioning
  122. antisocial personality disorder
    person is aggressive, ruthless, and shows no sign of a conscience that would inhibit wrong doing

    *socio/psycho paths)
  123. mood disorders
    emotional extremes
  124. Major depressive disorder
    occurs when a person exhibits the lethargy feelings of worhtlessness, or loss of interest in family, friends, etc or characteristics of depression for more than 2 week period
  125. Mania
    wildly optimistic, euphoric hyperactive state that alternates with depession in biopolar disorder

    **norepinephrine is over abundant**
  126. biopolor disorder
    mood disorder in which a person alternates between depression and manic state
  127. Schziophrenia
    group of severe disorders whose symptoms may include disorganized and delusional thinking, inappropriate emotions and actions, and distrurbed perceptions

    • Subtypes :
    • Paranoid-hallucinations
    • disorganized-jumbling speech, actions
    • catonic - immbolity or excessive movement
  128. delusions
    false beliefs that often are symptoms of psychotic disorders

    * I am Mary Poppins
  129. Behavioralmedicine
    interdisciplinary field that applies behavior and medical knowledge to the treatment of diseases and to the promotion of health
  130. health psychology
    application fo psychological concepts and reasearch illness prevention and treatment to health advancement
  131. stress
    process by which people appraise and cope with environmental threats and challenges
  132. General Adaptation Syndrome GAS
    • 3 stage sequence of bodily reaction to stress outlined by Hans Selye
    • 1. alarm reaction
    • 2. resistance
    • 3. exhaustion
  133. Coronary heart disease
    clogging vessles that nourish the heart
  134. Type "A"
    reactive, hard driving, competitive, verbally aggressive, easily angered
  135. Type "B" (mod 41)
    easy going, relaxed people
  136. psychophysicological illness
    any genuine illness, such as hypertenision and headahces that is apparently linked to stress rather than caused by a physical disorder
  137. Lymphocytes (Mod 41)
    • two types of white blood cells of the immune system:
    • b lymphocytes-fight bacterical infections
    • t lymphocytes - fight viruses, cancer cells, and foreign substance in the body
  138. Coping
    refers to any effort to alleviate stress using emotional, congnitive, or behavioral methods
  139. problem-focused coping
    involves reducing stress by directly changing a stressor or how interact with it

    ex. family fight we will go directly to member to work things out
  140. emotion-focused coping
    reducing stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to the emotional reaction it triggers

    *reaching out to friends to help address our own emotional needs
  141. Aeroboic exercise
    any substained activity such as running, swimming, or cycling that promotes heart and lung fitness and may help alleviate drepression and anxiety
  142. biofeedback
    refers to a system for electronically recording, amplifying and feeding back information regarding subtle physiological state
  143. complementary and alternative medicine
    collection fo health care remedies and treaments that have not been accepted by medical science or verified by controlled research trials
  144. emotion (mod 38)
    • response of the whole organism involving:
    • 1. pshycial arousal
    • 2. expressive beahviors
    • 3. conscious experience
  145. James-Lange Theory (Mod 38)
    emotial experience based on an awareness of the body's response to the emotion-arousing stimuli

    **heart race, then you feel fear

    a stimulus triggers the body's respons that in turn trigger hte expereinced emotion
  146. Cannon-Bard Theory
    emotional ocurs at the same time as they body's physical reaction
  147. Two-Factor Theory
    emotions have phsycial arousal and a cognitive label,
  148. Polygraph
    lie detector, measures several of the phsyciological responses accompanying emotion

    * some brain signals are the same for stress and guilt and other things so not realiable
  149. Catharsis
    emotional release; according ot the cathariss hypothesis, by expressiong our anger, we can reduce it
  150. feel-good, do-good phenomenon
    tendency of people to be helpful when the are in a good mood
  151. subjective well-being
    a person's sense of satisfaction with his/her life
  152. adaptation-level phenomenon
    our tendency to judge things relative to our prior experience

    **ex, now when color goes out on big tv freaks out over when little tv was amazing, he adapted to big tv
  153. relative deprivation
    perception that we are worse off relative to those when we compare ourselves
  154. motivation
    a need or desire that energies and directs behavior
  155. Instinct
    complex behavior that is ridgidy patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
  156. Drive-reduction theory
    when physiological need occurs, the drive to satisfy such need increases
  157. homeostatsis
    body's tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state
  158. incentives
    positive or negative environmental stimuli that motivates behavior
  159. Hierarchy of Needs (MASLOW)
    • 1. Phsyiological needs (food, water)
    • 2. safetly needs (feel safe, secure, stable)
    • 3. belongingness and love needs ( need for recongition/respect from others)
    • 4. Esteem Needs ( avoid lonliness)
    • 5. Self actualization needs ( live up to full potential)
  160. Glucose
    blood sugar, the major source of energy for the body's tissues
  161. Set Point
    an individual's regulated weight level, which is maintained by adjusting food intake and energy output
  162. Basal metobolic rate
    the body's base rate of energy expenditure when resting
  163. Anorexia Nervosa
    an eating disorder, most common in adolscence femals, in which a person restricts food intake to become significally underweight and yet they still feel fat
  164. Bulimia Nervosa
    eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating followed by vomiting, laxatie use, fasting or excessive exercise
  165. sexual response cycle
    • cosist of 4 stages of bodily reaction:
    • -excitement
    • -plateau
    • -orgasm
    • -resolution
  166. refractory period
    resting period after orgasm, during which a male cannot be aroused to another orgasm
  167. sexual disorder
    problem such as erectile dysfunciotn, premature ejaculation, adn orgasmic disorder, that consistently impairs sexual arousal or functioning
  168. estrogen
    sex hormone secreted in greater amounts by females than males
  169. testosterone
    sex hormone secrted in greater amounts by males than by females
  170. sexual orientation
    a persons enduring attraction to members of either the same or opposite gender
  171. flow (mod 37)
    • ** could be painting and get so into it you lose track of time
    • state of focused consciousness on a task that optimally engages a person's skills, often accompanied by a diminished awareness of self and time
  172. Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology
    subfield of psychology that studies and advises on issues related to optimizing behavior in work-places
  173. Personnel Psychology
    subfield of industrialorganizational psych that applies psychological methods and principles to the selection and evaluation of workers
  174. organizational psychology
    subfield of I/O that explores how work environments and managements styles affect worker motivation, satisfaction, and productivity
  175. structured interview
    one in whch an interviewer asks the same job related quesions of all interviewers, who are then rated on establishe evaluation scales
  176. achievement motivation
    a desire for significant accomplishment; for mastery of things, people or ideas and for attaining a high standar
  177. task leadership (mod 37)
    setting standards, organizing work, and focusing attention on goals
  178. social leadership
    group oriented leadership that builds teamwork, mediates conflict and offers support
  179. cognition
    the mental activity associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating info
  180. concept
    mental grouping of similar objects, events and people
  181. algorithm
    step by step procdure that guarantees a solution
  182. prototype
    best example of a particular category
  183. heurisitic
    simple strategies, rule of thumb short cuts
  184. Insight
    • a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem.
    • ** when something you can't remember suddenly pop in your head**
  185. confirmation bias
    search for info that confirms our ideas
  186. fixation
    an inability to approach a problem in a new way
  187. mental set
    the tendency to continue applying a particular problem-solving strategy even when it is no longer helpful
  188. functional fixedness
    type of fixation in which a person can think of things only in terms of their usual functions

    * go look for a screw driver even if dime could have done the job
  189. representativeness heuristic
    tendency to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they conform to ones prototype
  190. availability heuristic
    based on estimating the probability of certain event in terms of how readily they come to mind
  191. overconfidence
    the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's belifs and judgements
  192. framing
    the way an issue or question is posed
  193. belief bias
    the tendency for a person's preexisting beliefs to distort his/her logical reasoning
  194. belief perserverance
    tendency for people to cling to a particular belief even after the info that led to the formation of belief is discredited
  195. language
    spoken, written, or gesture word's and how we combined them to communicate meaning
  196. phonemes
    • smallest distinctive sound
    • ---CHAT----
    • has 3 phenonmes CH-A-T
  197. morphemes
    • smallest unit of language that convey meaning
    • ---UNDESIRABLES---
    • has 4 morphemes
  198. grammar
    a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
  199. semantics (mod 30)
    aspect of grammar that specifies the rules used to derive meaning from morphemes words, and sentences in a given language
  200. syntax
    rules for combining words in grammatically sensible sentences in a given languages
  201. babbling stage
    begins around 4 months, cHaracterized by spontaneous utterance of speech sound
  202. 1-word stage
    1-2 years children speak mostly in single words
  203. 2-words stage
    two word sentences
  204. telegraphic speech
    economical, telegramlike speech of children in 2-word stage
  205. linguistic determinism
    Bemjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
  206. intelligence
    the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations
  207. factor analysis
    statistical procedure that identifies factors or clusters of elated items, that seem to define a common ability
  208. general intelligence (mod 31)
    • * g factor
    • factor that underlies the various clusters
  209. savant syndrome
    low intelligence score, yet posses one exceptional ability
  210. emotional intelligence
    ability to perceive manage, understand, and use emotions
  211. creativity
    an ability to produce novel and valuable ideas
  212. Intelligence Test
    measure people's mental aptitiudes and compare them to others through numerical scores
  213. mental age
    concept of Binet, the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance
  214. Standford-Binet
    Lewis Terman's widely used revision of Binet's original intelligence test
  215. Intelligence Quotient (IQ)
  216. aptitude test
    designed to predict future performance
  217. achievement test
    measure of a person's curren knowledge
  218. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
    most widely used intellignece test contains 11 subtest and yields seperate verbal and performance intelligence score
  219. standardization
    process of defining meaningful scores by companson with a pretested standardization group
  220. normal curve
    bell shaped curve that represents the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes
  221. reliability
    test produce consistency
  222. validity
    test measure what it was designed to measure
  223. content validity
    behavior, test taps the pertinent behavior

    aka road test because the test faces the actually task you'll have to do to become a driver
  224. criterion
    the behavior that test is designed to predict
  225. predicitve validity
    the extent to which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict
  226. mental retardation
    IQ below 70, difficult adapting to normal demands of independent living
  227. Down syndrome
    severe retardation from reult of the extra 212 chomrosome
  228. heritability
    proportion of variation among indiviuduals in a trait that is attributed to gentic factors
  229. stereotype threat
    the phenomenon in which a person's concern that he/she will be evaluted based on negative sterotype is actually followed by a lower performance
  230. learning
    relatively permanent changing an organism's behaviors due to experience
  231. observational learning
    learning by watching and limiting the behaviors of others
  232. modeling
    process of watching and then imitating a specific behavior and is thus an important means through which observational learning occurs
  233. mirror neurons
    found in brain's frontal lobe, may be neural basis for observational learning. These neurons generate impulses when certain actions are performed on when another individual who performs those actions is observed
  234. prosocial behavior (mod 23)
    opposite of antisocial, positive, helpful, and constructive is subject to the same principles of observational learning as is undesirable behavior, such as aggresion
  235. associative learning
    organisms learn certain events occur together
  236. operant conditioning
    type of learning for which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforce or diminished stimuli followed by a punisher
  237. respondent behavior
    occurs as autonomic response to some stimulus
  238. operant behavior
    behavior that operateson the environment, producing consequences
  239. law of effect
    behaviors followed by favorable consequences are likely to reoccur and that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become lesslikely
  240. operant chamber
    an experiment chamber for operant conditioning fo an animal such as a pigeon or rat (skinner box)
  241. shaping
    establishing a new ressponse by reinforcing successive approximations of the desired behavior
  242. reinforcer
    any event that strenthens the behavior it follows
  243. positive reinforcement
    presenting a typically pleasurable stimulus after that response
  244. ex) cookie after obey
  245. negative reinforcement
    strenthens a response by removing an aversive stimulus after that response

    ex) take something away to get desired behavior
  246. primary reinforcers
    inborn and do not depend on learning
  247. conditioned reinforcers (mod 22)
    stimuli that acquire their reinforcing power through their association with primary reinforcement, are learned
  248. continuous reinforcement
    operant procedure of reinforcing the desired response everytime it occurs

  249. partial reinforcement
    operant procedure of reinforcing a response intermmittenly
  250. fixed-ratio schedule
    reinforcement is presented after a set number of responses

    *people paid on commission
  251. variable-ratio schedule
    • reinforcement is presented after a varying number of responses
    • *slot machines
  252. fixed-interval schedule
    • response is reinforced after a specificied time has elapsed
    • *check to see mail, when usually comes around same time everyday
  253. variable-interval schedule
    responses are reinforced after varying intervals of time

    *when text messages come in
  254. punishment
    presentation of an aversive stimulus such as shock, which decreases the behavior it follows
  255. cognitive map
    mental picture of one' s environment
  256. latent learning
    learning that becomes apparent only when there is some incentive to demonstrate it
  257. intrinsic motivation
    the desire to perform a behavior for its own aske, rather than for some external reason, and to be effective
  258. extrinsic motivation
    desire to perform a behavior in order ot obtain a reward or to avoid a punishment
  259. classical conditioning
    type of learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes capable fo triggering a conditioned response after having become associated with unconditioned stimuli
  260. behaviorism
    view that psychology should be an objective science that studies only observable behaviors without reference to mental processess
  261. unconditioned resospones, U. R
    unlearned, involuntary response to undconditioned stimuli

    ex. slavation
  262. unconditioned stimulus,
    stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers the reflexive undcontioned stimulis

    ex. dog food
  263. conditioned response
    learned response ot a previous neutral conditined stimulus, which results from acquired association between CS and US

    ex. salvation
  264. conditioned stimulus, CS
    an orginally neutral stimulus htat comes to trigger a CR after associatioon with an undconditoined stimulus

    ex. bell noise
  265. acquistion
    the initial stage of conditioning in which the new response is established and gradually strenthened
  266. extinction
    weakening of a CR when the CS is no longer followed by the US
  267. spontaneous recovery
    reappearance of an extinguished CR after a rest period
  268. generalization
    the tendency once a response has been conditioined, for stimuli similar to the CS evoke a CR
  269. discrimination
    ability to distinguished the CS from similar stimuli that do not signal a US
  270. consciousness
    our awareness fo ourselves/environments
  271. biological rythm
    periodic fluctuations in our body's psysiological states
  272. circadian rhythm
    any regular bodily rhythm, such as body temp and sleepwakefullness, follows 24hf cycle
  273. REM sleep
    sleep stage whcih brain and eyes are active, muscles are relaxed, vivid dreams occurs "paradoxical sleep"
  274. Alpha waves
    relatively slow brain waves characterisitic of an awake, relaxed state
  275. sleep
    natural, periodic, reversible loss of consciousness body/mind depend on healthy functioning
  276. hallucinations
  277. false sensory experienced that occurs without any sensory stimulus
  278. delfa waves
    large, slow brian waves associated with deep sleep
  279. insomnia
    sleep disorder, person regularly has difficulty falling/staying asleep
  280. narcolepsy
    victims suffers sudden uncontrollable sleep attacks, directly entering REM sleep
  281. sleep apnea
    person ceases breathing wile asleep, briefly arouses a gasp for air, falls back to sleep, and repeats
  282. night terror
    episodeds fo high arousal with apparent horror (usually in stage 4 sleep)
  283. dreams
    vivid sequences of images, emotions, and thoughts , the most vivid occur in REM sleep
  284. manifest content
    remebered storyline
  285. latent content
    underlying but sensored meaning of a dream
  286. psychoactive drugs
    chemical substances that alter mood and perception, work by affecting or mimicking activity of neurotransmitters
  287. phsyical dependence
    phsyiolgical need for a drug that is indicated by the presense of withdrawal sympotms when the drug is not taken
  288. psychological dependence
    psychological need to use a drug
  289. addiction
    compulsive craving for a drug despite adverse consequences and withdrawal sympotms
  290. depressants
    alcohol, opiates, barbituates

    reduce neural activity and slow body function
  291. barbituarates
    depressants sometimes used to induce sleep and reduce anxiety
  292. opiates
    depressants derived from opiatium poppy, reduce neural activity and temporarily lessen pain and anxiety
  293. stimulants
    excite neural activity and speed up body funciton

    caffeine, nicotine, amphetiamines, cocaine
  294. amphetamines
    stimulant, speed up body funciton and neural activity
  295. methamphetimine
    powerfully addictive stimulant that speeds up body functions and is associated with energy and mood changes
  296. ecstasy
    • stimulant and hallucinogen,
    • produces short term euphoria by increasing serotonin levels in the brain
  297. LSD
    powerful hallucinogen capable of porducing vivid, false perpceptions and disorganizaiton fo though and processes, blocks serotonin
  298. near-death experience
    an altered state of consciousness that has been reported by some people who have close brush with death
  299. dualism
    philosophical belief that the mind and body are distinct entities
  300. monism
    belief that midn and body are different aspects of the same thing
  301. THC
    major active ingredient in weed, classified as mild
  302. sensation
    bottom up processing, detect through sense, we see, feel touch
  303. perception
    top-down processing, use experience and expectations to interpret what we sensed
  304. bottom-up processing
    begins with senses, then brain inteprets
  305. top-down processing (mod 12)
    infor processing guided by a higher level mental processes
  306. absolute threshhold
    minimum stimulation needed to detect a stimulus 50% of the time
  307. signal detection theory
    precisely how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus
  308. subliminal
    stimulus that is below abosolute threshold for conscious awareness
  309. priming
    activation fo an association by an imperceptible stimulus, teh effect of which is to predispose a perception, memory, or response

    * listen all words that make you think "chair"
  310. difference threshold
    the minimum difference between two stimuli that a person can detect 50% of the time
  311. Webster's Law
    just noticeable difference between 2 stimuli is a constant minimum proportion of the stimulus
  312. sensory adaptation
    the decrease in sensititivity that occurs with continued exposure to an unchanging stimulus

    * move watch up wrist, will feel for a second
  313. selective attention
    focussing of conscious awareness on a particular stimulus out of all of those that we are capable of experiencing

    * you don't pay attention to feeling of chair when watching movie
  314. cornea
    light enters through and protects eye and bends light so we can focus
  315. iris
    color part, controlling sizing of pupil to optimize amount of light that enters the eye
  316. lens
    transparent structure behind pupil changes shape to foccs images on the retina
  317. pupil
    adjustable opening in the iris, allows light to enter,
  318. retina
    light sensitive inner surface of eye, contains the rods and cones, which tranduce light energy to neural impulses
  319. blind spot
    region of retina where the optic nerve leaves the eye, contains no rod or cones, meanning there is no vision there
  320. optic nerve
    bundle of nerve fibers, carries neural impulses from retina to brain
  321. transduction
    conversion of one form of energy into another

    *transferring sights, sounds, smells into neural impulses that our brain can interpret
  322. wavelength
    distance from one wave peak to the next, determines the color we see (hue)
  323. insensity
    amount of energy in light waves, influences brightness
  324. acuity
    sharpness of vision
  325. nearsightedness
    distant objects are seen clearly but nearby objects are blurred because light rays reflecting form tehm strike the retina before converging
  326. farsightedness
    nearby objects are blurry
  327. Rods (mod 13)
    concentrate on periphory of retina, function well in dim light
  328. Cones
    enable color vision
  329. fovea
    retina's point of central focus, contains only cones, images focussed here are clearest
  330. feature detectors (visual cortext)
    nerve cells that selectively respond ot specific visual features such as moement shopre or angle
  331. parallel processing
    info processing in which several aspects of a stimulus, such as light or sound are preocessed simultaneously
  332. Young-Helmhotizi Trichromatic Theory
    mantains that the retina contains red-green-and blue sensitive color receptors that in combo can produce perception of any color.
  333. opponent-process theory
    maintians that color vision depends on pairs of oppsong retical process.
  334. color constancy
    perception that familir objects have consistent color despite changes an illumination that shifts wavelengths that reflect
  335. auditory canal
    sound wave passing through auditory canal are brought to a point of focus at the eardrum
  336. eardrum
    lying between outer and middle ear, this memebrane vibrates and inner eat, this air-filled chamber contains the hammer, anvil, and sturrip
  337. hammer,anvil, stirrup
    • tiny bones of middle ear concentrate the ear drums vibrations on the conchlea's oval window
  338. inner ear
    contains semiciraclar canals and conchlea which inclueds receptors that transduce sound energy into neural impulse
  339. audition
    sense of hearing
  340. pitch (
    sound deterined by frequency (numer of wavelenghts) that can pass a point in a given time
  341. middle ear
    chamber between eardrum and conchlea contain hammer, anvil, stirrup that concentrate eardrums vibrations on conchlea's oval window
  342. conchlea
    coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube of inner ear where the transduction of sound waves into neural impulses occur
  343. Place theory
    we hear different pitches because sound waves of various frequent trigger activity at different places on conchlea's basiliar membrane
  344. Frequency Theory
    rate, or frequency of nerve impulses in the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
  345. Conduction hearing loss
    problems with the mechanical system that condcuts sound waves to the chochlea
  346. Sensorineural hearing loss
    hearing loss caused by damage to the auditory nerve due to disease, aging or prolonged expose ot ear-splitting noise
  347. chochlear implant
    an electronic device that converts sound into electrical signals that stimulate the auditory nerve
  348. Gate-control theory
    • spinal cord contains a neurological "gate' that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain
    • OPEN: by activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers
    • CLOSED: by activity in large fibers or info from the brain
  349. Sensory Interaction
    principle that one sense may influence another
  350. kinesthesis
    • sense of the position and movement of the parts of the body
    • Parts
  351. vestibular sense
    • sense of body movement and position included the sense of balance
    • movement
  352. zygote
    fertilized egg
  353. embryo
  354. the developing prenatal organizism from 2 weeks to 2 months after conception
  355. fetus
    the developing prenatal human from 9 weeks after conception to birth
  356. teratogens
    any drugs, virsuses, or other substances that cross the mother's placenta and can harm the development of the embryo
  357. FAS
    physical and congitive abnormalities that heavy drinking by a pregnant woman may cause int eh developing child
  358. rooting relfex
    when newborn cheek is stroked, it's tendency to turn toward the touch and search for the nipple
  359. habituation
    decreasing responsiveness to a stimulus that is repreatedly represented
  360. maturation
    the biological growht processess that enable orderly change in behavior and are relatively uninfluenced by experience or other environmental factors
  361. schemas
    mental concepts or frameworks that organize and interpret info
  362. assimilation
    • interpreting a new experience in terms of existing schemas
    • ** any four legged animal is a dog
  363. accomodation
    • taking new stimuli and understanding to make new infor
    • **a doggie is different than a kittie
  364. cognition
    all the mental processess associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
  365. sensory motor stage
    2 infant gain knowledge of world through senses and their motor activites
  366. object permanence
    develops during sensory motor stage, awaremness that things do not cease to exist when not perceived
  367. preoperational stage
    2 to 6 years, language development is rapid, child unable to understand mental operations to understand concrete logic
  368. conservation
    principle that number, volume, mass remain constant despite changes in the forms of objects

    * tall glass, short glass
  369. egocentrism
    • children have difficulity considering other's viewpoint,
    • they believe everyone thinks the same way they do
  370. theory of mind
    thinking about others thinking
  371. autism
    disorder, marked by deficiences in communication, social interction, and theory of mind
  372. concrete operational stage
    6-11 children canthink logically about concrete events and objects
  373. formal operational stage
    starts age 12, think logically about abstract concepts
  374. stranger anxiety
    fear of strangers (8 months)
  375. attachment
    emotional tie with another person
  376. critical period
    limited time shortly after birth, an organism must be exposed to certain experiences or influences to develop properly
  377. imprinting
    process by which certain animals form attachments during a limited crticial period early in life
  378. basic trust
    a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
  379. self-concept
    person's sense of identity and personal worth
  380. adolescence
    puberty to adulthood
  381. puberty
    sexual maturation
  382. primary sex characterstics
    reproductive organs
  383. secondary sex characteristic
    all physical changes not used for reproduction, hips, pubic hair, deeper voice, breast
  384. menarche
    first period
  385. cross sectional study
    people of different ages are compared to each other
  386. longitudinal study
    same people are tested and retested over a period of years
  387. crystallized intelligence
    vocab, general knowledge, relfect accumulated learning, increases with age
  388. fluid intelligence
    a person's ability to reason speedily and abstractly (decreases with age)
  389. behavior genetics
    study of genetic and environmental influence on behavior
  390. chromosomes
    made of DNA molecules, thread like, 23 from Mom 23 from Dad
  391. genes
    biochemical units of heredity that make up chromosomes
  392. DNA
    complex molecules containing the genetic info that makes up chromosomes
  393. genome
    complete set of genetic instructions for an organisms make-up
  394. temperament
    person's characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  395. natural selection
    • evolutionary principle that traits that cotnribute to reproduction and survival are more likely to be passed down
    • *survival of the fittest*
  396. mutations
    random errors in gene replication
  397. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    amplified recording of the waves of electrical brain activites
  398. PET
    measure the level of activities of different areas of the brain by tracing glucose consumption
  399. MRI
    uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produc computer-generated images that show brain structor more clearly
  400. fMRI
    reveal blood flow and brain anatomy and function
  401. brainstem
    oldest part, direct automatic survival functionings
  402. medulla
    controls breathing and heart beat
  403. reticular formation
    nerve network, plays a role in controlling arousal
  404. thalamus
    routes incoming messages to the appopriate cortical centers and transmits replies to teh medulla nad cerebellum
  405. cerbellum
    sensory input and balance, coordination
  406. limbic system
    associated with emotion, fear, aggression
  407. amyglada
    fear, aggression small
  408. hypothalamus
    • regulates hunger, thirst, body temp, sex, helps govern endoctrine system
    • *reward center of brain
  409. cerbral cortex
    bark, think intricate covering,
  410. glia cells
    provides nutrience and insulates myelin, helps remove excess ions
  411. frontal lobes
    behind forehead, involved in speaking, musclemovements, plans and judgements
  412. parietal lobe
    between frontal and occipital lobes, sensory
  413. temporal lobes
    side of brain, contain auditory area and recieves info from ears
    • Blue: Frontal
    • Green: Temporal
    • Yellow: Parietal
    • PInk: Occipital
  414. motor cortex
    located back and frontal lobe, controls voluntary movement
  415. sensory cortex
    located at front and parietal, behind motor, regulates body touch and movement
  416. apashia
    impairment oflanguage as result to Broca and Wernicke
    • Broca's Area:
    • helps with speaking, forming words
    • Wernicke's Area:
    • Involved in understanding, comprehending speech
  417. plasticity
    the brain's capacity for modification, as evidence by brain reorganization following damage
  418. corpus callosum
    • large band of neural fibers that linkst he riht and left cerebral hemispheres
    • "split brain"
  419. dendrite
    busy, branches, receives messages from nerve cells
  420. axon
    the extension of a neuron that sends impulses to nother nerve cells or to muscles or glands
  421. myelin sheath
    fatty tissue that covers axons and helps speed neural impulse
  422. action potential
    neural impulse generated by movement of pistively charged atoms in/out of chanels of axon's membrain
  423. threshold
    level of stimulation must be exceeded for a neuron to fire
  424. Acetylcholine (Ach)
    muscle action/movement, attention, arousal, memory

    *too little causes alzheimers
  425. endorphins
    natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and pleasure
  426. dopamine
    • mood, emotion, arousal, learning
    • *too little Parkinson's
    • *too much Schizophrenia
    • *linked wiht cocaine nad amphetamines
  427. norepinephrine
    • mood, arousal, learning
    • *too little, depression
  428. serotonin
    • sleep, hunger, agression, arousal
    • *too little, depression
    • *too much, anxiety, inhibit dreaming
  429. GABA
    • inhibitory effect on axon's
    • sleep, movement
    • * too little Huntingtons disease,seizures
    • *alcohol increases GABA
  430. Glutamate
    • excitatory effect on axons/neurons
    • alcohol blocks glutamate
  431. Right Brain
    fun, creative, artsy, music
  432. Left Brain
    structure, language and logical math reasoning
  433. central nervous system
    brain, spinal cord
  434. peripheral nervous system
    • sensor and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to body's receptors, muscles and glands,
    • splits into autonomic and somatic nevous systems
  435. autonomic nervous system
    • self-regulated action
    • breathing
    • controls internal functioning
  436. somatic nervous system
    voluntary control of skeletal muscles
  437. Sympathetic nervous system
    arousing, alert, flight or fight
  438. parasympathetic nervous system
    calming, conserves energy,
  439. pituitary glands
    • under influence of hypothalamus, regulats growth and controls endoctrine system
    • "master gland"
  440. adrenal glands
    produce epinephrine and nonepinephrine, hormoones that prepare body to deal with emergencies or stress
  441. hormones
    chemical messengers, manufactored by endoctrine glands, produced in one tissue and circulate through the blood stream to to their target tissues