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Kidneys play a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance with what elements
How do the kidneys play role in regulating bp
what % of blood goes to kidneys for filtration
juxta medullary nephrons
allow for fluid reabsorption
: bicarb, ca, P
blood flow in general in kidney
through afferent arterial to glomerulus (filter here) and through efferent arterial
what is the normal GFR?
what is secreted from the tubles (into urine/filtrate) normally?
At what point is glucose going to spill into the urine
What is the first sign of diabetes?
what is the normal output of urine
increases reabsorption on sodium and water
production increases with low BP, blood volume or low sodium levels
reabsorption of sodium in distal tubules
released by kidneys
increases RBC production
released in response to decreased O2
calcium and kidneys
required for correct metabolism of Ca
kidney produces active form of vit D
TF: Nephrons damaged by both hypo and hyper tension
why do aging get up in the middle of the night to urinate?
noctural polyria - aren't as effective as concentrating urine which causes them to get up in night
Is one bladder scan sufficient?
greates of 2-3 scans
1.005 - 1.03
Positive sign of UTI
production of muscle breakdown
0.5 - 1.1
increase is considered abnormal
blood urea nitrogen
by product of protein metabolism
clearance of nitrogen waste products
The GFR is controlled by
renal blood flow
changes in pressure in afferent and efferent arterioles
creatinine clearance compares.....
serum creatinine to creatinine in 24 hr urine collection
which imaging study for kidney function
IVP - uses contrast