Science - The Circulatory System
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State the role of the circulatory system
Defence against disease
Homeostasis, including regulating body temperature
Where is blood made?
In the bone marrow
List the four components of blood
Red blood cells
White blood cells
What are the functions of blood?
To transport oxygen
To transport food and hormones around the body
List the three types of blood vessels
State the function of plasma
To transport food around the body
To keep the body at the correct temperature
State the function of white blood cells
To fight against disease
State the function of platelets
To clot the blood
State the function of red blood cells
To transport oxygen around the body
Give the differences between arteries and veins
Arteries carry blood away from the heart whereas veins carry blood to the heart
Arteries have no valves but veins have valves
Arteries have a thick wall and a small lumen whereas veins have a thin wall and a large lumen
The blood pressure in arteries is high whereas in veins the blood pressure is low
State the function of arteries
To carry blood away from the heart
State the function of capillaries
They connect (link) arteries and veins
How are capillaries adapted to allow materials to easily pass into and out of them?
They have thin walls
The walls are permeable and moist
There are a huge number of capillaries which provides a large surface area across which materials may be exchanged
They have a narrow diameter so all blood is in close contact to tissue cells
State the function of veins
To carry blood to the heart
What are the upper chambers of the heart called?
What are the lower chambers of the heart called?
What is the function of the vena cava?
To carry deoxygenated blood (high in carbon dioxide) from the body to the heart
What is the function of the pulmonary artery?
To carry deoxygenated blood (high in carbon dioxide) from the heart to the lungs
What is the function of the pulmonary vein?
To carry oxygenated blood (high in oxygen) from the lungs to the heart
What is the function of the aorta?
It is the largest blood vessel in the body and carries oxygenated blood (rich in oxygen) from the heart to every organ of the body
What are valves?
The valves consists of flaps that open to let blood flow in one direction as it moves through the chambers of the heart
Then the valve close to keep blood from flowing backwards into the chamber it just left
Why is the wall of the left side of the heart thicker than the right side?
Because it has to pump blood to every part of the body
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled A
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled B
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled C
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled D
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled E
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled F
Correctly identify the part of the heart labellled G
Correctly identify the part of the heart labelled H
State the function of double circulation
This consists of a circuit pumping blood between the heart and the lungs while at the same time it is pumped through a second circuit between the heart and the rest of the body
Give different things you can do to keep your heart healthy
Do some exercise every day
Maintain a healthy weight
Eat less fatty and salty foods
Do not smoke or drink
Eat at least five portions of fruit and vegetables every day
Reduce stress in your life and make time to relax
What is the normal body temperature of an adult?
37 degrees celsius
What is a pulse?
This is when blood is pumped through the arteries causing pressure
State the normal heartbeat rate (pulse rate) of humans
70 beats per minute
State the effect of exercise on the pulse rate
Exercise causes the heart and pulse rate to increase because the cells in our body need more food and oxygen and need to get rid of carbon dioxide and heat
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