The "Great Dying" was the mass depopulation of _________________.
Native American populations were reduced by as much as ___________ percent by European and African diseases within a century of Columbus's first voyage.
Native Americans were so susceptible to common Eurasian diseases because they had no _______________ for those illnesses.
The Columbian Exchange led to immense population growth in Europe by introducing calorie-rich _____________ as crops from the Americas.
corn and potatoes
Spanish colonists born in the Americas (as opposed to having been born in Spain) were called _______________.
The British, French, Dutch, and Portuguese empires focused on the production of _____________ in their colonies in Brazil and the Caribbean.
Free blacks and mulattoes had far greater opportunities in ____________ than elsewhere in the Americas.
By 1825, almost 70 percent of Brazil's population was either partially or completely of ____________ descent.
By the time of the American Revolution, ________ percent of the population of the British colonies in North America were Europeans.
The Russian Empire replaced the __________ Empire that had once dominated large swaths of Asia.
The Russian Empire, to this day, is a primarily ____________ social and political system.
European and Asian
The Qing dynasty expanded the Chinese Empire into _____________.
The Qing rulers themselves were from ____________, north of the Great Wall.
The Treaty of Nerchinsk (1689) fixed the border between the ____________________ empires, thus avoiding war.
Chinese and Russian
The Central Asian warriors who conquered India in the sixteenth century were called the _____________.
Emperor Akbar's policy of religious toleration toward non-Muslims in India was reversed by the emperor ____________.
The Ottoman Empire was heir to the __________ Empire.
The elite military and administrative units of the Ottoman Empire were called the ____________.
In 1529 and again in 1683 the Ottoman Empire besieged the central European capital of ____________.
Jews fleeing persecution in Spain found safe refuge in _____________.
the Ottoman Empire
Martin Luther believed that ___________ alone would bring salvation.
The ideas of the Reformation spread quickly thanks to the invention of _____________.
the printing press
The Reformation caused serious violence in France between the Catholic majority and the Protestant ______________ minority.
The ___________ War was the devastating culmination of Protestant-Catholic violence.
In response to the Protestant breakaway, the Catholic Church reaffirmed and reformed its doctrines and practices through the ____________.
The Spanish and Portuguese saw their expansion of Christianity to their colonies as part of a tradition of ____________.
____________ were deities who, many Andean peoples believed, would fight back against Christianity and Spanish rule.
Jesuit missionaries in China tried to point out parallels between Christianity and ______________.
______________ means the blending of two or more religions, usually the blending of a dominant religion such as Christianity and native religions involving magic, spirits, sacrifices, and other rituals.
Abd al-Wahhab called for the elimination of all ___________ from the faith of Islam.
Confucianism enriched by insights from Buddhism and Daoism was called ____________.
Kaozheng was a Chinese movement that was intended to "seek truth from __________."
Guru Nanak, the founder of Sikhism, said, "There is no Hindu; there is no Muslim; only ________."
The most important institutions in creating Europe's Scientific Revolution were its __________.
Copernicus's "discovery" of a sun-centered universe almost certainly drew from discoveries made 200 to 300 years earlier in present-day _________.
In the view of Johannes Kepler, the universe was not so much like a "divine animated being" but more like a ___________.
The Scottish professor Adam Smith formulated a set of laws that govern the operation of ___________.
Voltaire, like many other Enlightenment thinkers, was a proponent of __________.
The central theme of the Enlightenment was the idea of _________.
Charles Darwin, Karl Marx, and Sigmund Freud, all inspired by the Enlightenment, cast doubt upon the core Enlightenment idea of human __________.