Micro Final Exam
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Micro Final Exam
Final Exam Spring 2012
Who disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation? and
What was used as a control in Pasteur's experiment to disprove The Theory of Spontanuous Generation?
The second tube - air was not drawn through the soluble fiber.
What is the purpose of a control in a balanced experiment?
serves as a stand for comparison
Who develped the first microscope?
Anton van Leeuwenhock
very simple , one lens, 200-300 X
What did van Leeuwenhock give us an "aweness" of?
What is the meaning of the Germ Therory of Disease?
Germs cause disease
Who laid the foundation for the Germ Theory od Disease?
Kock with his Postulates, by providing a direct correlation between one germ and one disease
Who demonstrated that disease can be interrupted by hand washing?
Antrax is ______ disease caussed by the bacteria ______.
Zoonotic disease caused by
Pasteur develpoed a vaccine for what pathogen he could not see, what was it?
Prokaryotes have what charecteristics?
no nuclear membrane
they are bacteria
Barcteria are _____ and _____ are bacteria.
Who developed the substage condenser and oil immersion lens?
The system of taxonomy was
devised by whom?
Viruses are not included in the classification system. Why?
they are not considered a living organism, but must have a living cell to function
When veiwing a prepared slide of Trypanosoma gambiense in a bllod smear what objective lens & light are you most likley to use?
High dry in bright field
What is the total magnification when the scanning power lens is used?
When using a basic stain, what charge does the color molecule have?
(most stains are basic)
How does a direct stain work?
by staining the organism directly with a
How does an acidic stain work?
colored portion of the molecule has a negative charge, so it is repelled by the cell.
The background is stained and the cell remains clear.
How would you provide contrast to view a living specimen from a pond water sample in your microscope?
is a _________ that commonly causes an _________ infection?
common flora that causes opportunistic infections
Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is spread by what and caused by what agent?
A Tapeworm is what kind of worm?
Heterotrophic bacteria belong to the same kningdom as _____.
This STD is also known as the only flagellated protozoan:
What phylum conatins
What would you call a roundworm infestation?
Taeniasis is what?
a tapeworm infestation
Phcology is the study of what?
The system in which there are 4 kingdoms of eukaroytes and one kingdom of bacteria is called what?
Tree of Life"
Mesophiles like what?
US- moderate temperatures
Alkalinophiles like what?
base-loving organisms that grow best at a pH 8.5-12.0.
Which reaction is necessary for both aerobuic & Anaerobi organisms?
Give an example of a competative enzyme inhibitor:
Penicillin = an antibiotic / magic bullet / Bacteriostatic
Does not have as many side effects
CAN for resistance
Name some examples of a non-competative enzyme inhibitor:
Heavy metals, arsenic, mercury / Halides, chlorine, flourine, iosine
What are the advantages / dis-advantages of NON-competative enzyme inhibitors?
TOXIC to host / bacteriocidal
What is bacterial replication?
Transverse Binary Fission
What are 3 types of gene transfer mechanisms? What do they do?
Give genetic variability / genetic recombination
Conjugation is what ?
plasmid is transfered by a pilus
What is transduction?
How do you get genetic variation in transverse bininary fisson?
when a mutation occurs
What is Transformation?
when a live bacteria picks up genes from a dead bacteria
What is Prophage?
latent virus that infects bacteria
What is a media called that has something special added to it ?
What is a differential media?
will differentiate by changing color
What is Manatol Salt Agar used for?
Selective for Gram positive Staphylococci
Differetial for pathogenic Staphylococci
What is an Enterotube used for?
Rapid ID of enteric bacteria (Gram -, tiny rods, facultativly anaeobic)
When a patients normal flora becomes opportunistic, due to low defense, or killing off of other normal flora?
What is an exogenous infection?
introduced to a patient from the enviornment outside that of the hospital
What is test Muller-Hinton agar used for?
Kirby-Bauer antibiotic sensitivity test
What type of toxin is a soluble substance secreted by bacteria into host tissues? Gram negative or positive?
What type of toxic reeaction is cause by Gram - bacteria releasing toxins into a host tissue when they die?
Endotoxin - incorporated into bacterial cell wall
What is ID
Infectious Dose 50 = number of pathogens required to make 50% of hosts sick
What is LD
Lethal Dose 50+ looking for the amount of toxin required to make 50% of hosts dead
How many chomosomes does a bacterial cell have?
ONE, located in the nucleiod
Wher is ATP made in a bacterial cell?
What bacteria have no cell wall?
give an example
/ walking pneumonia
What is an organism DNA / RNA called?
What is a gene?
ONE section of the genome which is code for a particular trait.
What is a group of 3 that code for an amino acid called?
What is Tinea?
the medical term for a type of dermatomycosis (skin condition)
The causative agent of Malaria is ______.
What is Mycology?
the study of fungi & yeasts
What is Bacteriology ?
the study of bacteria, includes the kingdom Monera
What is the causative agent of anthrax?
What is turbity:
what is floculant?
What is a pellicle?
scum layer on the top
found a the bottom
Fimbrae are what?
"finger like" - help bacteria adhere to surfaces
Aristotle is credited for:
original spontaneous generation theory
Name the Gram -, non-motile, faculatative anaerobe found in the normal flora of the mouth:
can be opportunistic
can become resistant (CRKP)
is nosocomial infection
What phase represents a culture that is acclimating to a new invornment?
During what phase is it best to select bacteria for an experiment ?
Log Phase = exponential growth
In what phase is population doubling time the shortest?
Log phase = exponential growth
How many bacterial cells are present in a culture during the lag phase?
what is the Gram - spirochaete that causes syphilis?
When using the Gram staining technique, a cell wall that does not retain the crystal violet dye would be called what?
Endotoxic cells walls are Gram negative or positive?
what bacteria is a Gram negative rod that is flagellated, covered in fimbrae and is considered part of our enteric bacteria?
What type of organism has 1-2 layers of peptidoglycan? and what color is it when stained?
Gram negative (thin wall)