Micro Final Exam

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  1. Who disproved the Theory of Spontaneous Generation? and
  2. What was used as a control in Pasteur's experiment to disprove The Theory of Spontanuous Generation?
    The second tube - air was not drawn through the soluble fiber.
  3. What is the purpose of a control in a balanced experiment?
    serves as a stand for comparison
  4. Who develped the first microscope?
    • Anton van Leeuwenhock
    • very simple , one lens, 200-300 X
  5. What did van Leeuwenhock give us an "aweness" of?
  6. What is the meaning of the Germ Therory of Disease?
    Germs cause disease
  7. Who laid the foundation for the Germ Theory od Disease?
    Kock with his Postulates, by providing a direct correlation between one germ and one disease
  8. Who demonstrated that disease can be interrupted by hand washing?
  9. Antrax is ______ disease caussed by the bacteria ______.
    Zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis
  10. Pasteur develpoed a vaccine for what pathogen he could not see, what was it?
    Rabies Vaccine
  11. Prokaryotes have what charecteristics?
    • single chomosome
    • no nuclear membrane
    • Unicellular
    • they are bacteria
  12. Barcteria are _____ and _____ are bacteria.
  13. Who developed the substage condenser and oil immersion lens?
  14. The system of taxonomy was originally devised by whom?
  15. Viruses are not included in the classification system. Why?
    they are not considered a living organism, but must have a living cell to function
  16. When veiwing a prepared slide of Trypanosoma gambiense in a bllod smear what objective lens & light are you most likley to use?
    High dry in bright field
  17. What is the total magnification when the scanning power lens is used?
    40 X
  18. When using a basic stain, what charge does the color molecule have?
    • Positive charge
    • (most stains are basic)
  19. How does a direct stain work?
    by staining the organism directly with a simple stain
  20. How does an acidic stain work?
    • colored portion of the molecule has a negative charge, so it is repelled by the cell.
    • The background is stained and the cell remains clear.
  21. How would you provide contrast to view a living specimen from a pond water sample in your microscope?
  22. Candida albicans is a _________ that commonly causes an _________ infection?
    common flora that causes opportunistic infections
  23. Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever is spread by what and caused by what agent?
    • VECTOR (ticks)
    • Rickettsia rickettsii
  24. A Tapeworm is what kind of worm?
  25. Heterotrophic bacteria belong to the same kningdom as _____.
  26. This STD is also known as the only flagellated protozoan:
    Trichomonas vaginalis
  27. What phylum conatins Trichomonas vaginalis ?
  28. What would you call a roundworm infestation?
  29. Taeniasis is what?
    a tapeworm infestation
  30. Phcology is the study of what?
  31. The system in which there are 4 kingdoms of eukaroytes and one kingdom of bacteria is called what?
    The "OLD Tree of Life"
  32. Mesophiles like what?
    US- moderate temperatures
  33. Alkalinophiles like what?
    • base-loving organisms that grow best at a pH 8.5-12.0.
    • Ex: Vibrio cholera
  34. Which reaction is necessary for both aerobuic & Anaerobi organisms?
  35. Give an example of a competative enzyme inhibitor:
    • Penicillin = an antibiotic / magic bullet / Bacteriostatic
    • Does not have as many side effects
    • CAN for resistance
  36. Name some examples of a non-competative enzyme inhibitor:
    Heavy metals, arsenic, mercury / Halides, chlorine, flourine, iosine
  37. What are the advantages / dis-advantages of NON-competative enzyme inhibitors?
    NO resistance

    TOXIC to host / bacteriocidal
  38. What is bacterial replication?
    Transverse Binary Fission
  39. What are 3 types of gene transfer mechanisms? What do they do?
    • Conjugation
    • Transduction
    • Transformation

    Give genetic variability / genetic recombination
  40. Conjugation is what ?
    plasmid is transfered by a pilus
  41. What is transduction?
    Virus transfers
  42. How do you get genetic variation in transverse bininary fisson?
    when a mutation occurs
  43. What is Transformation?
    when a live bacteria picks up genes from a dead bacteria
  44. What is Prophage?
    latent virus that infects bacteria
  45. What is a media called that has something special added to it ?
    Enrichment agar
  46. What is a differential media?
    will differentiate by changing color
  47. What is Manatol Salt Agar used for?
    Selective for Gram positive Staphylococci

    Differetial for pathogenic Staphylococci
  48. What is an Enterotube used for?
    Rapid ID of enteric bacteria (Gram -, tiny rods, facultativly anaeobic)
  49. When a patients normal flora becomes opportunistic, due to low defense, or killing off of other normal flora?
  50. What is an exogenous infection?
    introduced to a patient from the enviornment outside that of the hospital
  51. What is test Muller-Hinton agar used for?
    Kirby-Bauer antibiotic sensitivity test
  52. What type of toxin is a soluble substance secreted by bacteria into host tissues? Gram negative or positive?
    • Exotoxin
    • Gram +
    • release neurotoxins
    • Food Intoxication
    • ex: Staphylococcus aureus
  53. What type of toxic reeaction is cause by Gram - bacteria releasing toxins into a host tissue when they die?
    • Endotoxin - incorporated into bacterial cell wall
    • Salmonella / E. coli / Campylobactor
  54. What is ID50 ?
    Infectious Dose 50 = number of pathogens required to make 50% of hosts sick

  55. What is LD50 ?
    Lethal Dose 50+ looking for the amount of toxin required to make 50% of hosts dead
  56. How many chomosomes does a bacterial cell have?
    ONE, located in the nucleiod
  57. Wher is ATP made in a bacterial cell?
    Plasma Membrane
  58. What bacteria have no cell wall?
    give an example
    • Mycoplasma
    • Mycoplasma pneumonia / walking pneumonia
  59. What is an organism DNA / RNA called?
    a Genome
  60. What is a gene?
    ONE section of the genome which is code for a particular trait.
  61. What is a group of 3 that code for an amino acid called?
  62. What is Tinea?
    the medical term for a type of dermatomycosis (skin condition)
  63. The causative agent of Malaria is ______.
    the protozoan, Plasmodium
  64. What is Mycology?
    the study of fungi & yeasts
  65. What is Bacteriology ?
    the study of bacteria, includes the kingdom Monera
  66. What is the causative agent of anthrax?
    Bacillus anthracis
  67. What is turbity:
  68. what is floculant?
  69. What is a pellicle?
    scum layer on the top
  70. Sediment?
    found a the bottom
  71. Fimbrae are what?
    "finger like" - help bacteria adhere to surfaces
  72. Aristotle is credited for:
    original spontaneous generation theory
  73. Name the Gram -, non-motile, faculatative anaerobe found in the normal flora of the mouth:
    • Klebsiella pneumoniae
    • can be opportunistic
    • can become resistant (CRKP)
    • is nosocomial infection
  74. What phase represents a culture that is acclimating to a new invornment?
    Lag phase
  75. During what phase is it best to select bacteria for an experiment ?
    Log Phase = exponential growth
  76. In what phase is population doubling time the shortest?
    Log phase = exponential growth
  77. How many bacterial cells are present in a culture during the lag phase?
  78. what is the Gram - spirochaete that causes syphilis?
    Treponema pallidum
  79. When using the Gram staining technique, a cell wall that does not retain the crystal violet dye would be called what?
    Gram negative
  80. Endotoxic cells walls are Gram negative or positive?
    Gram negative
  81. what bacteria is a Gram negative rod that is flagellated, covered in fimbrae and is considered part of our enteric bacteria?
    Protues vulgaris
  82. What type of organism has 1-2 layers of peptidoglycan? and what color is it when stained?
    • Gram negative (thin wall)
    • RED
Card Set
Micro Final Exam
Final Exam Spring 2012
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