Overdose of a weakly basic drug (ex. amphetamines)
Give ammonium chloride, since it's trapped in another acidic environment.
Phase 1 metabolism
CYP450: redox, hydrolysis. Afterward, the metabolite will be slightly water-soluble & polar. Old people lose Phase I first.
Phase 2 metabolism
Conjugation to make it more water-soluble for excretion: metabolites are now very polar & inactive. Acetylation, glucuronidation, sulfation.
Activates bowel & bladder smooth muscle -- for ileus (post-op or neurogenic) or urinary retention.
BethAnne, call me...
Pile on the sweat & tears... and weight (b/c saliva stimulated too).
Eyes: for glaucoma, pupil contraction, release intraocular pressure
For asthma dx. A challenge test, b/c this drug stimulates muscarinic receptors in airway.
"Keep, the stale, stagnant one around longer" = parasympathetic. Very stagnant & boring, b/c they don't even work directly... they slow the ACh breakdown enzyme (anti-cholinesterase), so ACh stays around longer to stimulate muscarinic receptors.
All are good for either m.gravis (where you're losing ACh receptors) or glaucoma.