BIO 205 Final Nutrition

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  1. What are the main nutrients?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
  2. Nutrient Functions
    • Growth
    • Cell metabolism
    • Energy
  3. What do nutrients break down into?
    • Carbs --> glucose
    • Protein --> amino acid
    • Lipid --> fatty acid and glycerol
  4. Complex Carbohydrates
    • Longer chains
    • Ex: potatoes, wheats

    *Must consume carbs or else brain cannot function
  5. Simple Carbohydrates
    • Easily absorbed
    • Preferred
    • Ex: fruit, vegetables
  6. Refined Grains
    During refinement, bran and germ removed; mostly starch remains
  7. Grain Structure
    • Bran: fiber and protein rich outer protective layer
    • Endosperm: starchy inner cose
    • Germ: vitamins, essential fats, and antioxidants
    • Image Upload
  8. Soluble Fiber
    • Binds with cholesterol, preventing its GI absorption
    • So it can be pooped
  9. Insoluble Fiber
    • Adds bulk; stimulates "regularity"
    • Stimulate bowel movement
  10. Glycemic Index
    How easily food is absorbed as time goes by

    • Ex of high GI: glucose
    • Ex of low GI: Beans

    Image Upload
  11. Proteins and Amino Acids
    • 20 amino acids to make proteins that our cells need
    • Have to ingest essential amino acids to make protein

    There are 8 essential amino acids
  12. Complete Protein Sources
    • These contain all 8 essential amino acids:
    • eggs
    • milk products
    • meat
    • puoltry
    • tofu
    • soy milk
    • edamame
  13. Incomplete Protein Sources
    • Deficiency in at least one of the essential amino acids
    • To make complete combine foods

    Ex: corn and beans
  14. How many servings of protein do you need daily?
    • 2 servings
    • Size of deck of cards
  15. Effects of Too Much Protein
    • Amino acids broken down and urea gets processed through kidney
    • Kidney fails
    • Need to consume extra water --> if not, will result to kidney stones
  16. Lipids
    • Oils
    • Fats
  17. Saturated Fat
    • Solid at room temperature
    • Found in animal products
    • Maximum amount of bonds going straight

    Non-animal: coconut
  18. Unsaturated Fat
    • Liquid at room temperature
    • Double bond and tilted

    • Ex: Olive oil
    • Ex of polyunsaturated fat: safflower oil
  19. Essential Fatty Acids
    • Body cannot make them
    • Must consume
    • Ex: salmon, mackeral, sardines, walnuts, almonds, dark leafy green vegetables
  20. Omega-3 Fatty Acids
    • May be protective against heart disease
    • Good fat

    • Ex: sardines, trout
    • Ex: flax seed oil and canola oil
  21. "Trans" Fat
    • Hydrogenation to change a liquid fat into a solid fat
    • Proteins in blood attach to cholesterol and go out in poop (trans-fat prevents that from happening)
    • Damage blood vessels
    • Double bond where hydrogens are on opposite sides
  22. Cholesterol and Fat Effects on Heart
    • Coronary artery gets clogged
    • Need to exercise
    • Can get bypass surgery or angioplasty
  23. Calcium
    • Build bones, teeth
    • Muscle contraction
    • Vitamin D from Sun
  24. Osteoperosis
    • Osteoclasts are more active than osteoblasts
    • As you get older, bone density goes down
    • Need to exercise and using weights to prevent it
  25. Sodium Intake
    • 1/4 teaspoon a day
    • Average American Diet: 4-6 grams a day
  26. Vitamins
    • Fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E, K
    • All others are water soluble
    • Normal metabolism, growth, development, and regulation of cell function
    • Getting vitamins from food is better than from a pill
  27. Anti-Oxidants
    • Free radicals: Compounds have extra electrons sitting on them are unstable and do "bad things"
    • Antioxidants: get rid of extra elextron and defend against free radicals

    Vitamins A, C, E
  28. Basal Metabolic Rate
    Calorie consumption deal with BMR

    More exercise creates more muscle increasing the BMR to burn more calories even at rest
  29. Anorexia Nervosa
    • Fear of getting fat
    • 90% of those affected by anorexia are female
  30. Bullimia Nervosa
    • Strict dieting with lots of rules
    • Binge eating
    • Compensatory behaviors (vomiting, laxatives, diuretics, exercise)
    • Extreme concerns about body shape and weight

    • Hard to identify because weight is normal
    • Yellowing of back of teeth from hydrochloric acid
  31. Muscle Dysmorphia
    • If not decked out with muscles, they feel fat
    • Male equivalent to anorexia
    • Hours a day working out
  32. Binge Eating
    • Overeating
    • Purging
    • Anxiety will do this
    • Anything that give emotional upset can cause it
  33. Overnutrition
    As income increases, obesity goes up
Card Set:
BIO 205 Final Nutrition
2012-04-25 02:19:27
BIO 205 Final Nutrition pal human biology

BIO 205 Final Nutrition
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