Biological Aspects of Personality

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Biological Aspects of Personality
2012-04-24 22:30:24

Exam 2
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  1. What was an early attempt at relating personality to the brain?
  2. One of the three body types, known as roly-poly, supposedly good-natured types.
  3. One of the three body types. Muscular, large-boned athletic types.
  4. Which body type did Sheldon try to link to criminal behavior?
  5. Who came up with the Somatotype theory?
    William Sheldon
  6. One of the three body types. Slender, bookworm types.
  7. Published On the Origin of Species.
    Charles Darwin
  8. The process by which certain adaptive characteristics emerge over generations.
    Natural Selection
  9. Those with ____________ are likely to contribute to offspring in next generation.
    Greater fitness
  10. Those with ______________ are likely to die early or fail to reproduce.
    Lower fitness
  11. Attention is drawn to the function of a characteristic in survival
  12. Modern application of Darwin's ideas to individual differences in personality, with attention focused on the function of a characteristic in survival.
    Evolutionary personality theory
  13. The study of how genes affect behavior
    Behavioral Genomics
  14. A biological disorder caused by a defect on chromosome 15. Happy, cheerful, and attractive people. Often are developmental delays/mental retardation, communication limitations, and difficulties with motor skills.
    Angelman syndrome
  15. A rare biological disorder caused by missing a small amount of genetic material on one chromosome. These people are excessively sociable, skilled communicators, musically talented, but have limited spatial skills, are impatient, and have trouble concentrating.
    Williams Syndrome
  16. The stable individual differences in emotional reactivity.
  17. Vigorous motion
  18. To be easily aroused.
  19. A person who approaches and enjoys others.
  20. A person who is aggressive and cold.
  21. This person tried to link temperment with central nervous system differences.
  22. These people have a low level of brain arousal.
  23. What kind of nervous system are neurotic people said to have, as opposed to the well-modultated nervous system of stable people.
    Very reactive nervous systems
  24. A system responding to novel situations and punishment.
    Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS)
  25. A system responding to rewards.
    Behavioral Approach System (BAS)
  26. People with what, BIS or BAS, are more prone to drug abuse and overeating?
    BAS, because of the response to rewards.
  27. A tendency to seek out highly stimulating activities and novelty.
    Sensation seeking
  28. An important neurotransmitter with drug addiction.
  29. People can have _____________ in their dopamine systems that make them susceptible to addiction.
    Natural defects
  30. What environmental toxins can cause personality changes?
    Mercury, lead.
  31. What physical illnesses can cause personality changes?
    Alzheimers, stroke
  32. This man began the study of genetic influences on personality.
    Sir Francis Galton
  33. The movement begun by Francis Galton that encouraged preserving or purifying the gene pool of the elite in order to improve human blood lines.
  34. Found eminence could be traced along family trees.
  35. First to suggest adopted twin research.
  36. If an individual has an identical twin with schizophrenia, what is the chance that he or she also develops the illness?
  37. What type of twins are more likely to share the same sexual tendencies?
  38. When genetic factors can influence exposure to environmental conditions.
    Gene-Environment Interplay
  39. A parental genotype is related to family environment, such as when a child inherits musical talent because that child is exposed to music.
  40. When a child elicits reactions from others consistent with their genetic propensities, such as when a child's inherited musical talent may elicit greater attention from a music teacher.
  41. When and individual selects or interprets their environment on the basis of genetic influences.
    Active (or Tropism!)
  42. Heritable traits that do not involve change to the underlying DNA sequence.
  43. This is the idea that it is a "right" to dominate/kill people based on survival of the fittest (genocide)
    Social Darwinism